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A comparative study of quantitative kinematic data of fore- and hindlimb movements of eight different mammalian species leads to the recognition of basic principles in the locomotion of small therians. The description of kinematics comprises fore- and hindlimb movements as well as sagittal spine movements including displacement patterns of limb segments,(More)
Arthropods are the most successful members of the animal kingdom largely because of their ability to move efficiently through a range of environments. Their agility has not been lost on engineers seeking to design agile legged robots. However, one cannot simply copy mechanical and neural control systems from insects into robotic designs. Rather one has to(More)
In order to gain insight into the function of the extant sloth locomotion and its evolution, we conducted a detailed videoradiographic analysis of two-toed sloth locomotion (Xenarthra: Choloepus didactylus). Both unrestrained as well as steady-state locomotion was analyzed. Spatio-temporal gait parameters, data on interlimb coordination, and limb kinematics(More)
The 26 S proteasome is the central protease involved in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation and fulfills vital regulatory functions in eukaryotes. The proteolytic core of the complex is the 20 S proteasome, a cylindrical particle with two outer rings each made of 7 different alpha-type subunits and two inner rings made of 7 different beta-type subunits.(More)
BSND encodes barttin, an accessory subunit of renal and inner ear chloride channels. To date, all mutations of BSND have been shown to cause Bartter syndrome type IV, characterized by significant renal abnormalities and deafness. We identified a BSND mutation (p.I12T) in four kindreds segregating nonsyndromic deafness linked to a 4.04-cM interval on(More)
CLC channels and transporters are expressed in most tissues and fulfill diverse functions. There are four human CLC channels, ClC-1, ClC-2, ClC-Ka, and ClC-Kb, and five CLC transporters, ClC-3 through -7. Some of the CLC channels additionally associate with accessory subunits. Whereas barttin is mandatory for the functional expression of ClC-K, GlialCam is(More)
Given the importance of thoraco-lumbar spine movements in the locomotion of mammals, it is surprising that in vivo three-dimensional (3-D) data on the intervertebral movement of the mammalian thoraco-lumbar vertebral column during symmetrical gaits is limited to horses and dogs. To test whether kinematic patterns similar to those published for these(More)
Fatty acids are ligands for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha). Fatty acid levels are increased in liver during the metabolism of ethanol and might be expected to activate PPAR alpha. However, ethanol inhibited PPAR alpha activation of a reporter gene in H4IIEC3 hepatoma cells expressing alcohol-metabolizing enzymes but not in(More)
The mechanical laws which make possible several characteristic and well-known modes of primate locomotion are reviewed. Biological requirements are fulfilled in small and in large primates by utilizing different mechanical principles. On the basis of the mechanics, special morphological traits can be identified which are advantageous for performing these(More)
The genes coding for two different proteins with homologies to glutaredoxins have been identified in the genome of the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Both genes were amplified from a gametocytic cDNA and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The smaller protein (named PfGrx-1) with 12.4 kDa in size exhibits the typical glutaredoxin active site motif(More)