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Memories are thought to be due to lasting synaptic modifications in the brain. The search for memory traces has relied predominantly on determining regions that are necessary for the process. However, a more informative approach is to define the smallest sufficient set of brain structures. The rutabaga adenylyl cyclase, an enzyme that is ubiquitously(More)
In an extension of a study by Vitu, O'Regan, Inhoff, and Topolski (1995), we compared global and local characteristics of eye movements during (1) reading, (2) the scanning of transformed text (in which each letter was replaced with a z), and (3) visual search. Additionally, we examined eye behavior with respect to specific target words of high or low(More)
This study explored the contribution of finger counting habits to the association of numbers with space (the SNARC effect). First, a questionnaire study indicated that two-thirds of 445 adults started counting on their left hand, regardless of their handedness. Secondly, a group of 53 "left-starters" but not a group of 47 "right-starters" showed a SNARC(More)
Number symbols are part of our everyday visual world. Here we show that merely looking at numbers causes a shift in covert attention to the left or right side, depending upon the number's magnitude. This observation implies obligatory activation of number meaning and signals a tight coupling of internal and external representations of space.
Subjects read either normal text, text in which the space information between words was absent (either spaces were removed filled with x), or text in which spaces were preserved but the words were flanked by x. In two experiments, reading rate decreased by approx. 50% when space information was not available, suggesting that reading unspaced text is(More)
A growing body of research suggests that comprehending verbal descriptions of actions relies on an internal simulation of the described action. To assess this motor resonance account of language comprehension, we first review recent developments in the literature on perception and action, with a view towards language processing. We then examine studies of(More)
The Corsi Blocks task (CBT) measures spatial memory span, but methodological differences across previous studies prevent a clear appreciation of perceptual, memory, and motor contributions to spatial span. CBT performance in a standard condition was compared to performance with longer encoding intervals (3 vs 1 s), longer memory intervals (9 vs 1 s), or(More)
This study compared the spatial representation of numbers in three groups of adults: Canadians, who read both English words and Arabic numbers from left to right; Palestinians, who read Arabic words and Arabic-Indic numbers from right to left; and Israelis, who read Hebrew words from right to left but Arabic numbers from left to right. Canadians associated(More)
Fitts's law holds that movement time (MT) increases with longer distances. Here we report a violation of this law: When the target appears in a structured, linear display with placeholders indicating the possible target locations, MT to the most distant target is not longer than MT to the second most distant target, but rather tends to be shorter.(More)
There is much recent interest in the idea that we represent our knowledge together with the sensory and motor features that were activated during its acquisition. This paper reviews the evidence for such “embodiment” in the domain of numerical cognition, a traditional stronghold of abstract theories of knowledge representation. The focus is on(More)