Martin F. Semmelhack

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Bacterial populations use cell-cell communication to coordinate community-wide regulation of processes such as biofilm formation, virulence, and bioluminescence. This phenomenon, termed quorum sensing, is mediated by small molecule signals known as autoinducers. While most autoinducers are species specific, autoinducer-2 (AI-2), first identified in the(More)
Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the human disease cholera, uses cell-to-cell communication to control pathogenicity and biofilm formation. This process, known as quorum sensing, relies on the secretion and detection of signalling molecules called autoinducers. At low cell density V. cholerae activates the expression of virulence factors and forms(More)
4,5-Dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD), a product of the LuxS enzyme in the catabolism of S-ribosylhomocysteine, spontaneously cyclizes to form autoinducer 2 (AI-2). AI-2 is proposed to be a universal signal molecule mediating interspecies communication among bacteria. We show that mutualistic and abundant biofilm growth in flowing saliva of two human oral(More)
Quorum sensing is a process of bacterial cell-cell communication that enables populations of cells to carry out behaviours in unison. Quorum sensing involves detection of the density-dependent accumulation of extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers that elicit population-wide changes in gene expression. In Vibrio species, CqsS is a membrane-bound(More)
Quorum sensing is a process of chemical communication that bacteria use to assess cell population density and synchronize behavior on a community-wide scale. Communication is mediated by signal molecules called autoinducers. The LuxS autoinducer synthase produces 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD), the precursor to a set of interconverting molecules that(More)
A practical synthesis has been developed for DPD (4,5-dihydroxypentane-2,3-dione), an unstable small molecule that is proposed to be the source of universal signaling agents for quorum sensing in bacteria. The synthesis allows preparation of isotopically labeled DPD and ent-DPD as well as detailed studies of spontaneous binding to borate to give the unusual(More)
Quorum sensing is a chemical communication process that bacteria use to regulate collective behaviors. Disabling quorum-sensing circuits with small molecules has been proposed as a potential strategy to prevent bacterial pathogenicity. The human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses quorum sensing to control virulence and biofilm formation. Here, we analyze(More)
Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial cell-cell communication process that relies on the production and detection of extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. QS allows bacteria to perform collective activities. Vibrio cholerae, a pathogen that causes an acute disease, uses QS to repress virulence factor production and biofilm formation. Thus,(More)
Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease cholera, uses a cell to cell communication process called quorum sensing to control biofilm formation and virulence factor production. The major V. cholerae quorum-sensing signal CAI-1 has been identified as (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one, and the CqsA protein is required for CAI-1 production. However, the(More)
Proper formation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) holoenzymes is essential for the fitness of all eukaryotic cells. Carboxyl methylation of the PP2A catalytic subunit plays a critical role in regulating holoenzyme assembly; methylation is catalyzed by PP2A-specific methyltransferase LCMT-1, an enzyme required for cell survival. We determined crystal(More)