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1. Free intracellular calcium transients (delta[Ca2+] were monitored in cut segments of frog skeletal muscle fibres voltage clamped in a double Vaseline-gap chamber and stretched to sarcomere lengths that eliminated fibre movement. The measured calcium transients were used to calculate the rate of calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (s.r.) as(More)
A three dimensional (3D) model of Ca(2+) diffusion and binding within a sarcomere of a myofibril, including Ca(2+) binding sites troponin, parvalbumin, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump, and fluorescent Ca(2+)-indicator dye (fluo-3), was developed to numerically simulate laser scanning confocal microscope images of Ca(2+) "sparks" in skeletal muscle.(More)
Skeletal muscle uses voltage sensors in the transverse tubular membrane that are linked by protein-protein interactions to intracellular ryanodine receptors, which gate the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Here we show, by using voltage-clamped single fibres and confocal imaging, that stochastic calcium-release events, visualized as Ca2+(More)
Myoplasmic free calcium transients were monitored with the metallochromic indicator dye Antipyrylazo III (AP III) in single frog skeletal muscle fibres cut at both ends, stretched so as to minimize or eliminate contractile filament overlap and voltage clamped using a double-Vaseline-gap system (approximately 6 degrees C). The dye entered the central fibre(More)
Applying a brief repolarizing pre-pulse to a depolarized frog skeletal muscle fiber restores a small fraction of the transverse tubule membrane voltage sensors from the inactivated state. During a subsequent depolarizing test pulse we detected brief, highly localized elevations of myoplasmic Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+ "sparks") initiated by restored voltage(More)
1. Brief localized elevations in myoplasmic [Ca2+] (Ca2+ sparks) in individual sarcomeres of voltage-clamped frog skeletal muscle fibres were examined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. 2. Fibres held at 0 mV were briefly repolarized to -90 mV (repriming pulse) to restore only a small fraction of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium release. Subsequent(More)
1. The rate of calcium release (Rrel) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in voltage clamped segments of frog skeletal muscle fibres was calculated from myoplasmic free calcium transients (delta[Ca2+]) measured with the calcium indicator dye Antipyrylazo III. 2. During a 100-200 ms depolarizing pulse Rrel reached an early peak and then declined markedly.(More)
The modulation by internal free [Mg2+] of spontaneous calcium release events (Ca2+ "sparks") from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was studied in depolarized notched frog skeletal muscle fibers using a laser scanning confocal microscope in line-scan mode (x vs. t). Over the range of [Mg2+] from 0.13 to 1.86 mM, decreasing the [Mg2+] induced an increase in(More)
1. Calcium transients were recorded from cut segments of fast-twitch rat skeletal muscle fibres stretched to 3.7-4.0 microns per sarcomere and voltage clamped at a holding potential of -80 mV using the double Vaseline-gap technique. Calcium transients were monitored simultaneously with the two calcium indicators antipyrylazo III (AP III) and fura-2. AP III(More)
1. Voltage-clamp experiments were carried out using the three microelectrode technique. Using this method membrane current density at V1 is proportional to deltaV( = V2 - V1) where V1 and V2 are voltages at distances 1 and 21 from the end of a fibre. Voltage dependent sodium currents were blocked by tetrodotoxin, potassium by tetraethylammonium ions and(More)