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1. Free intracellular calcium transients (delta[Ca2+] were monitored in cut segments of frog skeletal muscle fibres voltage clamped in a double Vaseline-gap chamber and stretched to sarcomere lengths that eliminated fibre movement. The measured calcium transients were used to calculate the rate of calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (s.r.) as(More)
Myoplasmic free calcium transients were monitored with the metallochromic indicator dye Antipyrylazo III (AP III) in single frog skeletal muscle fibres cut at both ends, stretched so as to minimize or eliminate contractile filament overlap and voltage clamped using a double-Vaseline-gap system (approximately 6 degrees C). The dye entered the central fibre(More)
A three dimensional (3D) model of Ca(2+) diffusion and binding within a sarcomere of a myofibril, including Ca(2+) binding sites troponin, parvalbumin, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump, and fluorescent Ca(2+)-indicator dye (fluo-3), was developed to numerically simulate laser scanning confocal microscope images of Ca(2+) "sparks" in skeletal muscle.(More)
Skeletal muscle uses voltage sensors in the transverse tubular membrane that are linked by protein-protein interactions to intracellular ryanodine receptors, which gate the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Here we show, by using voltage-clamped single fibres and confocal imaging, that stochastic calcium-release events, visualized as Ca2+(More)
The steady-state calcium dependence of inactivation of calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum was studied in voltage-clamped, cut segments of frog skeletal muscle fibers containing two calcium indicators, fura-2 and anti-pyrylazo III (AP III). Fura-2 fluorescence was used to monitor resting calcium and relatively small calcium transients during(More)
1. The rate of calcium release (Rrel) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in voltage clamped segments of frog skeletal muscle fibres was calculated from myoplasmic free calcium transients (delta[Ca2+]) measured with the calcium indicator dye Antipyrylazo III. 2. During a 100-200 ms depolarizing pulse Rrel reached an early peak and then declined markedly.(More)
Applying a brief repolarizing pre-pulse to a depolarized frog skeletal muscle fiber restores a small fraction of the transverse tubule membrane voltage sensors from the inactivated state. During a subsequent depolarizing test pulse we detected brief, highly localized elevations of myoplasmic Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+ "sparks") initiated by restored voltage(More)
1. Brief localized elevations in myoplasmic [Ca2+] (Ca2+ sparks) in individual sarcomeres of voltage-clamped frog skeletal muscle fibres were examined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. 2. Fibres held at 0 mV were briefly repolarized to -90 mV (repriming pulse) to restore only a small fraction of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium release. Subsequent(More)
A general procedure for using myoplasmic calcium transients measured with a metallochromic indicator dye to calculate the time course of calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in voltage-clamped skeletal muscle fibers is described and analyzed. Explicit properties are first assigned to all relatively rapidly equilibrating calcium binding sites in(More)