Martin Engelhard

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We present a historical overview of research on microbial rhodopsins ranging from the 1960s to the present date. Bacteriorhodopsin (BR), the first identified microbial rhodopsin, was discovered in the context of cell and membrane biology and shown to be an outward directed proton transporter. In the 1970s, BR had a big impact on membrane structural research(More)
Archaebacterial photoreceptors mediate phototaxis by regulating cell motility through two-component signalling cascades. Homologs of this sensory pathway occur in all three kingdoms of life, most notably in enteric bacteria in which the chemotaxis has been extensively studied. Recent structural and functional studies on the sensory rhodopsin II/transducer(More)
EPR spectroscopy in combination with site directed spin labeling (SDSL) has become a valuable tool for structural investigations as well as for kinetic studies on proteins. This method has been especially useful for membrane proteins in yielding structural and functional data. This information is not easily available from other techniques, like, e.g., X-ray(More)
The sensory rhodopsin II from Natronobacterium pharaonis (NpSRII) was mutated to try to create functional properties characteristic of bacteriorhodopsin (BR), the proton pump from Halobacterium salinarum. Key residues from the cytoplasmic and extracellular proton transfer channel of BR as well as from the retinal binding site were chosen. The single site(More)
The molecular mechanism of transmembrane signal transduction is still a pertinent question in cellular biology. Generally, a receptor can transfer an external signal via its cytoplasmic surface, as found for G-protein-coupled receptors such as rhodopsin, or via the membrane domain, such as that in sensory rhodopsin II (SRII) in complex with its transducer,(More)
Motile bacteria and archaea respond to chemical and physical stimuli seeking optimal conditions for survival. To this end transmembrane chemo- and photoreceptors organized in large arrays initiate signaling cascades and ultimately regulate the rotation of flagellar motors. To unravel the molecular mechanism of signaling in an archaeal phototaxis complex we(More)
Bacteriorhodopsin protein (bR)-based systems are one of the simplest known biological energy converters. The robust chemical, thermal and electrochemical properties of bR have made it an attractive material for photoelectric devices. This study demonstrates the photoelectric response of a dry bR layer deposited on a nitrocellulose membrane with indium tin(More)
The early steps in the photocycle of sensory rhodopsin II mutant D75N are investigated in a comprehensive study using femtosecond visible pump/probe spectroscopy. An overall slower response dynamics after photoexcitation is observed compared to wild-type sensory rhodopsin II, which is assigned to changed electrostatics and an altered hydrogen-bonding(More)
This article describes a method, based on surface-enhanced resonance Raman (SERR) spectroscopy, for studying the reaction dynamics of photoreceptors immobilized on metal electrodes. Time resolution and fresh sample conditions are achieved by synchronizing the rotational and translational motion of a novel kinematic electrode with the duration and time delay(More)
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