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Members of the casein kinase-1 family of protein kinases play an essential role in cell regulation and disease pathogenesis. Unlike most protein kinases, they appear to function as constitutively active enzymes. As a result, selective pharmacological inhibitors can play an important role in dissection of casein kinase-1-dependent processes. To address this(More)
Many viruses regulate translation of polycistronic mRNA using a -1 ribosomal frameshift induced by an RNA pseudoknot. A pseudoknot has two stems that form a quasi-continuous helix and two connecting loops. A 1.6 A crystal structure of the beet western yellow virus (BWYV) pseudoknot reveals rotation and a bend at the junction of the two stems. A loop base is(More)
A biochemical oscillator can be reconstituted in vitro with three purified proteins, that displays the salient properties of circadian (daily) rhythms, including self-sustained 24-h periodicity that is temperature compensated. We analyze the biochemical basis of this oscillator by quantifying the time-dependent interactions of the three proteins (KaiA,(More)
We have determined X-ray crystal structures with up to 1.5 A resolution of the catalytic domain of death-associated protein kinase (DAPK), the first described member of a novel family of pro-apoptotic and tumor-suppressive serine/threonine kinases. The geometry of the active site was studied in the apo form, in a complex with nonhydrolyzable AMPPnP and in a(More)
In cyanobacteria, KaiC is an essential hexameric clock protein that forms the core of a circadian protein complex. KaiC can be phosphorylated, and the ratio of phospho-KaiC to non-phospho-KaiC is correlated with circadian period. Structural analyses of KaiC crystals identify three potential phosphorylation sites within a 10-A radius of the ATP binding(More)
Circadian (daily) biological clocks express characteristics that are difficult to explain by known biochemical mechanisms, and will ultimately require characterizing the structures, functions, and interactions of their molecular components. KaiC is an essential circadian protein in cyanobacteria that forms the core of the KaiABC clock protein complex. We(More)
Nine men participated in two experiments to determine the effects of increased response requirement and alcohol administration on free-operant aggressive responding. Two response buttons (A and B) were available. Pressing Button A was maintained by a fixed-ratio 100 schedule of point presentation. Subjects were instructed that completion of each fixed-ratio(More)
We examined the effect of a single O6-methylguanine (O6-MeG) template residue on catalysis by a model Y family polymerase, Dpo4 from Sulfolobus solfataricus. Mass spectral analysis of Dpo4-catalyzed extension products revealed that the enzyme accurately bypasses O6-MeG, with C being the major product (approximately 70%) and T or A being the minor species(More)
The crystal structure of the RNA duplex [r(CCCCGGGG)]2 has been refined to 1.46 A resolution with room temperature synchrotron diffraction data. This represents the highest resolution reported to date for an all-RNA oligonucleotide and is well beyond the best resolution ever achieved with an A-form DNA duplex. The analysis of the ordered hydration around(More)
Death associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a calcium and calmodulin regulated enzyme that functions early in eukaryotic programmed cell death, or apoptosis. To validate DAPK as a potential drug discovery target for acute brain injury, the first small molecule DAPK inhibitor was synthesized and tested in vivo. A single injection of the aminopyridazine-based(More)