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Fungi are the principal degraders of biomass in terrestrial ecosystems and establish important interactions with plants and animals. However, our current understanding of fungal evolutionary diversity is incomplete and is based upon species amenable to growth in culture. These culturable fungi are typically yeast or filamentous forms, bound by a rigid cell(More)
The molecular motor cytoplasmic dynein is responsible for most minus-end-directed, microtubule-based transport in eukaryotic cells. It is especially important in neurons, where defects in microtubule-based motility have been linked to neurological diseases. For example, lissencephaly is caused by mutations in the dynein-associated protein Lis1. In this(More)
Rice blast is caused by the fungus Magnaporthe grisea, which elaborates specialized infection cells called appressoria to penetrate the tough outer cuticle of the rice plant Oryza sativa. We found that the formation of an appressorium required, sequentially, the completion of mitosis, nuclear migration, and death of the conidium (fungal spore) from which(More)
The causal agent of rice blast disease, the ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe grisea, infects rice (Oryza sativa) plants by means of specialized infection structures called appressoria, which are formed on the leaf surface and mechanically rupture the cuticle. We have identified a gene, Magnaporthe metallothionein 1 (MMT1), which is highly expressed throughout(More)
Traditional approaches to pathological diagnosis include macroscopic examination and formalin fixation with the preparation of paraffin sections stained with a variety of histo-chemical techniques. These routine approaches however may be disappointing in the assessment of many conditions and occasionally fail to render a precise diagnosis or provide(More)
Three hundred and sixty seven neoplastic colorectal polyps removed at endoscopy of which 34 were complicated by invasive carcinoma, were reviewed clinically and histologically to assess the prevalence and clinical significance of venous and or lymphatic invasion. Traditional stains for histological assessment were supplemented by immunohistochemical(More)
The timely delivery of membranous organelles and macromolecules to specific locations within the majority of eukaryotic cells depends on microtubule-based transport. Here we describe a screening method to identify mutations that have a critical effect on intracellular transport and its regulation using mutagenesis, multicolor-fluorescence microscopy, and(More)
Eukaryotic cells use microtubule-based intracellular transport for the delivery of many subcellular cargos, including organelles. The canonical view of organelle transport is that organelles directly recruit molecular motors via cargo-specific adaptors. In contrast with this view, we show here that peroxisomes move by hitchhiking on early endosomes, an(More)
DiffServ offers an attractive solution to quality of service (QoS) for mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET)s since the overhead of alternative flow based QoS metrics and signaling is not required. However, within prioritized classes and in the presence of dynamically forming bottlenecks, DiffServ can lead to brittle failure modes in which all flows are highly(More)
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