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The present study tested error detection theories of the error-related negativity (ERN) by investigating the relation between ERN amplitude and error detectability. To this end, ERN amplitudes were compared with a behavioral measure of error detectability across two different error types in a four-choice flanker task. If an erroneous response was associated(More)
The present study investigated adjustments of selective attention following errors and their relation to the error-related negativity (Ne/ERN), a correlate of errors in event-related potentials. We hypothesized that, if post-error adjustments reflect an adaptive mechanism that should prevent the occurrence of further errors, then adjustments of attentional(More)
PURPOSE Lateralised lesions can disrupt inhibitory cross-callosal fibres which maintain interhemispheric equilibrium in attention networks, with a consequent attentional bias towards the ipsilesional field. Some evidence of this imbalance has also been found in hemianopic patients (Tant et al., 2002). The aim of the present study was to reduce this(More)
Forming expectations about the outcome of an action is an important prerequisite for action control and reinforcement learning in the human brain. The medial frontal cortex (MFC) has been shown to play an important role in the representation of outcome expectations, particularly when an update of expected outcome becomes necessary because an error is(More)
Recent brain imaging studies have implicated the rostral ACC (rACC) in the resolution of conflict between competing response tendencies in emotional task contexts, but not in neutral task contexts. This study tested the hypothesis that the rACC is necessary for such context-specific conflict adaptation. To this end, a group of patients with lesions of the(More)
The present study investigated whether the error-related negativity, an electrophysiological marker for performance monitoring, reflects (1) the expectancy of errors, or (2) the significance of errors for the current task goal. In the first case, a larger error-related negativity is predicted for less expected errors, whereas in the second case, a larger(More)
To study the effect of response-set size on action monitoring processes, the error-related negativity (Ne/ERN), the correct-related negativity (Nc/CRN), and behavioral indicators of action monitoring were compared across three groups of participants performing a two-choice, a four-choice, or an eight-choice version of the flanker task. After controlling for(More)
Human body postures convey useful information for understanding others' emotions and intentions. To investigate at which stage of visual processing emotional and movement-related information conveyed by bodies is discriminated, we examined event-related potentials elicited by laterally presented images of bodies with static postures and implied-motion body(More)
Violations of outcome expectancies have been proposed to account for error-related brain activity in the medial prefrontal cortex. The present study investigated whether early error monitoring processes are sensitive only to the expectancy of errors, or whether these processes also evaluate the significance of errors. To this end, we considered the(More)
Detecting one's own errors and appropriately correcting behavior are crucial for efficient goal-directed performance. A correlate of rapid evaluation of behavioral outcomes is the error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) which emerges at the time of the erroneous response over frontal brain areas. However, whether the error monitoring system's ability to(More)