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Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), antibacterial 15-kDa protein isoforms (p15s), and defensins (neutrophil peptides or NPs) are granule-associated antibacterial proteins of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) that have both direct and synergistic growth inhibitory activity against Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we have compared in(More)
The granulomatous immune response in tuberculosis is characterized by delayed hypersensitivity and is mediated by various cytokines released by the stimulated mononuclear phagocytes, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) and IL-1 beta. We have demonstrated that Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall component lipoarabinomannan (LAM), mycobacterial(More)
Neutrophils can be "primed" for an enhanced respiratory burst by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in concentrations measurable in patients with septic shock. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is the primary eicosanoid product of neutrophils and is felt to be a mediator of host defense and inflammation. We investigated the in vitro effects of LPS on neutrophil production of(More)
Granulomas due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis are rarely observed in valvular structures. When observed, they are associated with disseminated tuberculosis in immunocompromised patients. We report the first case of tuberculous valvular endocarditis isolated in an immunocompetent patient. The patient had severe mitral valve regurgitation due to a perforation(More)
The bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) is a potent cytotoxin, specific for Gram-negative bacteria, that also inhibits endotoxin activity by neutralizing isolated bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We have previously shown that an isolated 25 kD N-terminal fragment of human BPI carries all the(More)
How invading microorganisms are detected by the host has not been well defined. We have compared the abilities of Escherichia coli and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) purified from these bacteria to prime isolated neutrophils for phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated arachidonate release, to trigger respiratory burst in 1% blood, and to increase steady-state(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE We evaluate the association of intravenous fluid resuscitation initiation within 30 minutes of severe sepsis or septic shock identification in the emergency department (ED) with inhospital mortality and hospital length of stay. We also compare intravenous fluid resuscitation initiated at various times from severe sepsis or septic shock(More)
Production of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) by human neutrophils (PMN) in response to different stimuli is increased after pretreatment with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We have analyzed the steps in arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism affected by LPS by examining release of AA and its metabolites from [3H]AA prelabeled PMN. Pretreatment of PMN for 60 min with up to 1(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To investigate the pathogenesis of lung injury in Pneumocystic carinii pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis (NIP), common pulmonary complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The efficacy of corticosteroid therapy in P carinii pneumonia and the observation that bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) neutrophilia(More)