Martin Drucker

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Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) is transmitted in a non-circulative manner by aphids following the helper strategy. Helper proteins P2 and P3 act as a bridge between virions and the aphid cuticle. Electronic monitoring of aphid stylet activities (EPG technique), transmission tests and electron microscopy showed that CaMV is preferentially acquired from the(More)
Many plant and animal viruses are spread by insect vectors. Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) is aphid-transmitted, with the virus being taken up from specialized transmission bodies (TB) formed within infected plant cells. However, the precise events during TB-mediated virus acquisition by aphids are unknown. Here, we show that TBs react instantly to the(More)
The cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) has an icosahedral capsid composed of the viral protein P4. The viral product P3 is a multifunctional protein closely associated with the virus particle within host cells. The best-characterized function of P3 is its implication in CaMV plant-to-plant transmission by aphid vectors, involving a P3-virion complex. In this(More)
Mechanical vector-less transmission of viruses, as well as vector-mediated non-circulative virus transmission, where the virus attaches only to the exterior of the vector during the passage to a new host, are apparently simple processes: the viruses are carried along with the wind, the food or by the vector to a new host. We discuss here, using the examples(More)
Host-to-host transmission--a key step in plant virus infection cycles--is ensured predominantly by vectors, especially aphids and related insects. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms of virus acquisition, which is critical to vector-transmission, might help to design future virus control strategies, because any newly discovered molecular or cellular(More)
Alternative splicing usually leads to an increase in the number of gene products that can be derived from a single transcript. Here, a different and novel use of alternative splicing--as a means to control the amount of a potentially toxic gene product in the plant pararetrovirus Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV)--is reported. About 70 % of the CaMV 35S RNA,(More)
Aphids infest many plants and cause damage by depriving them of nutrients and by transmitting many viral diseases. Aphid infestation and arbovirus transmission are controlled by establishment (or not) of a compatible reaction between the insects and the plants. This reaction is the result of defense reactions of the plant and counter-defense reactions of(More)
Ventriculoatrial shunts were first developed in the 1940s and shortly thereafter became the treatment of choice for noncommunicating hydrocephalus. Although the mortality rate for noncommunicating hydrocephalus has fallen from 80% to 20%, ventriculoatrial shunts continue to have major life-threatening complications such as thromboemboli, infection, and(More)
The growing interface between psychiatric staff and the police as a result of the latter's involvement with disturbed patients released into various communities has intensified the need for appropriate police orientation and desensitization to these patients. This article describes a program that grew out of the need of the police for involvement with(More)
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