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The helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) is a key protein encoded by plant viruses of the genus Potyvirus. HC-Pro is involved in different steps of the viral cycle, aphid transmission, replication, and virus cell-to-cell and systemic movement and is a suppressor of post-transcriptional gene silencing. Structural knowledge of HC-Pro is required to better(More)
The helper component of Cauliflower mosaic virus is encoded by viral gene II. This protein (P2) is dispensable for virus replication but required for aphid transmission. The purification of P2 has never been reported, and hence its biochemical properties are largely unknown. We produced the P2 protein via a recombinant baculovirus with a His tag fused at(More)
Hundreds of species of plant viruses, many of them economically important, are transmitted by noncirculative vector transmission (acquisition by attachment of virions to vector mouthparts and inoculation by subsequent release), but virus receptors within the vector remain elusive. Here we report evidence for the existence, precise location, and chemical(More)
The cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) has an icosahedral capsid composed of the viral protein P4. The viral product P3 is a multifunctional protein closely associated with the virus particle within host cells. The best-characterized function of P3 is its implication in CaMV plant-to-plant transmission by aphid vectors, involving a P3-virion complex. In this(More)
Mechanical vector-less transmission of viruses, as well as vector-mediated non-circulative virus transmission, where the virus attaches only to the exterior of the vector during the passage to a new host, are apparently simple processes: the viruses are carried along with the wind, the food or by the vector to a new host. We discuss here, using the examples(More)
Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) is transmitted in a non-circulative manner by aphids following the helper strategy. Helper proteins P2 and P3 act as a bridge between virions and the aphid cuticle. Electronic monitoring of aphid stylet activities (EPG technique), transmission tests and electron microscopy showed that CaMV is preferentially acquired from the(More)
Many plant and animal viruses are spread by insect vectors. Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) is aphid-transmitted, with the virus being taken up from specialized transmission bodies (TB) formed within infected plant cells. However, the precise events during TB-mediated virus acquisition by aphids are unknown. Here, we show that TBs react instantly to the(More)
Though the duration of a single round of replication is an important biological parameter, it has been determined for only few viruses. Here, this parameter was determined for Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) in transfected protoplasts from different hosts: the highly susceptible Arabidopsis and turnip, and Nicotiana benthamiana, where CaMV accumulates only(More)
Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) is transmitted by aphids. For acquisition by the vector, a transmissible complex must form, composed of the virus particle, the viral coat-associated protein P3 and the helper protein P2. However, the components of the transmissible complex are largely separated in infected plant cells: most P3 virions are confined in(More)
Host-to-host transmission--a key step in plant virus infection cycles--is ensured predominantly by vectors, especially aphids and related insects. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms of virus acquisition, which is critical to vector-transmission, might help to design future virus control strategies, because any newly discovered molecular or cellular(More)