Martin Diener

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College students in 31 nations (N = 13,118) completed measures of self-esteem, life satisfaction, and satisfaction with specific domains (friends, family, and finances). The authors assessed whether cross-cultural variations in the strength of associations were related to societal dimensions including income and individualism. At the national level,(More)
Subjective well-being (SWB) in 55 nations, reported in probability surveys and a large college student sample, was correlated with social, economic, and cultural characteristics of the nations. The SWB surveys, representing nations that include three fourths of the earth's population, showed strong convergence. Separate measures of the predictor variables(More)
Whole-cell recordings were performed at isolated crypts from the distal colon of the rat. Enterocytes in intact crypts, patched from the basolateral side, exhibited a gradient in the resting zero-current potential. Along the axis of the crypt, the highest potentials were measured in the ground region, the lowest in the surface region. The cholinergic(More)
Carbachol (5 x 10(-5) mol.1-1) induced a biphasic increase in short-circuit current (Isc) consisting of an initial peak phase followed by a long-lasting plateau. Complete dependence on the presence of Cl- ions and sensitivity to bumetanide confirmed that carbachol induces Cl- secretion. The plateau phase was blocked by indomethacin, and both the plateau and(More)
1. Apical administration of an ionophore, nystatin, and basolateral depolarization by K+ were used to investigate the regulation of apical and basolateral electrogenic transport pathways for K+ in the rat proximal and distal colon. 2. Administration of nystatin (100 micrograms ml-1 at the mucosal side), in the presence of Na+ and in the presence of a(More)
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful condition affecting one or more extremities of the body, marked by a wide variety of symptoms and signs that are often difficult to manage because the pathophysiology is incompletely understood. Thus, diverse treatments might be ineffective. A recent report revealed the presence of autoantibodies against(More)
The effects of the Cl- channel blocker, NPPB (5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate), on the transport of Na+ and Cl- in the descending colon of the rat were studied in the Ussing chamber. In control tissue, NPPB administered at the mucosal side of the epithelium increased the short-circuit current (Isc) and inhibited the unidirectional mucosa-to-serosa(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The aim of this study was to identify the actions of H(2)S on ion transport across rat distal colon. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Changes in short-circuit current (Isc) induced by the H(2)S-donor, NaHS, were measured in Ussing chambers. Cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration was evaluated using fura-2. KEY RESULTS NaHS concentration-dependently(More)
Acetylcholine is not only a neurotransmitter, but is found in a variety of non-neuronal cells. For example, the enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), catalyzing acetylcholine synthesis, is expressed by the colonic epithelium of different species. These cells release acetylcholine across the basolateral membrane after luminal exposure to propionate, a(More)
The acetylcholine receptor agonists, acetylcholine (10(-5)-10(-4 M), carbachol (5 x 10(-6)-5 x 10(-5) M), bethanechol (5 x 10(-5)-5 x 10(-4) M) and dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP, 10(-5) M) increased the short-circuit current (Isc) in the rat colon descendens by a tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive mechanism. Blockade by TTX was still observed after removal of(More)