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In comparisons among Chicago neighbourhoods, homicide rates in 1988-93 varied more than 100-fold, while male life expectancy at birth ranged from 54 to 77 years, even with effects of homicide mortality removed. This "cause deleted" life expectancy was highly correlated with homicide rates; a measure of economic inequality added significant additional(More)
Organisms 'discount the future' when they value imminent goods over future goods. Optimal discounting varies: selection should favour allocations of effort that effectively discount the future relatively steeply in response to cues promising relatively good returns on present efforts. However, research on human discounting has hitherto focused on stable(More)
Men take a proprietary view of women's sexuality and reproductive capacity. In this chapter, we (a) argue that sexually proprietary male psychologies are evolved solutions to the adaptive problems of male reproductive competition and potential misdirection of paternal investments in species with mistakable paternity; (b) describe the complex interrelated(More)
Organisms typically "discount the future" in their decision making, but the extent to which they do so varies across species, sexes, age classes, and circumstances. This variability has been studied by biologists, economists, psychologists, and criminologists. We argue that the conceptual framework required for an interdisciplinary synthesis of knowledge in(More)
I thank both Martin J. Wiener and Barbara H. Rosenwein for their serious and thoughtprovoking responses to my arguments regarding culture, society and biology. 1 Since, despite a few common themes, they offer dramatically different evaluations of my argument, I shall deal with them separately, replying first relatively briefly to Wiener – with whom I(More)
Emlen's (1995) paper "An evolutionary theory of the family" reviewed existing ideas about the nature of family systems and the reasons why they have evolved in certain animal species. His theorizing led him to propose 15 predictions about how family systems function, based on favorable evidence from various species, mostly birds. While he suggested that(More)