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PURPOSE Examine changes in demographics of participants and performance trends at the Western States 100-Mile Endurance Run (WSER) since its inception in 1974. METHODS Name, age, sex, and finish information was obtained on runners in the WSER from 1974 to 2007. Linear regression analyses, ANOVA, and t-tests were used to examine participation and(More)
Participation trends in 100 m (161 km) ultramarathon running competitions in North America were examined from race results from 1977 through 2008. A total of 32, 352 finishes accounted for by 9815 unique individuals were identified. The annual number of races and number of finishes increased exponentially over the study period. This growth in number of(More)
  • M D Hoffman
  • 2010
This report documents performance-related trends in 100-mile (161-km) ultramarathon running competitions in North America. A retrospective analysis of results from 1977 through 2008 revealed that annual finish rates increased initially and then plateaued by the early 1990s at nearly 60%. The fastest times were produced by the 30-39 year age group among the(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the effect of an increase in roller ski rolling resistance on the physiological and upper body demands of roller skiing with the V2-alternate technique. METHODS Nine highly skilled cross-country skiers roller skied at three paced speeds on a flat oval loop using roller skis with high (HiR) and low (LowR) rolling resistance. Oxygen(More)
PURPOSE Although it has been reported that the majority of propulsive forces are generated through the poles with ski skating, no study has systematically examined poling forces among different skating techniques. The objective of the present study was to examine poling forces and timing during roller skiing on a 2.1% uphill. METHODS Nine highly skilled(More)
OBJECTIVE The double pole technique (DP) has been shown to be more economical than the V1 skate technique (V1 ) on flat terrain. The objective of the present study was to compare these two techniques during uphill roller skiing. In addition, the physiological effects of changing roller ski rolling resistance was examined for V1. METHODS Five female and(More)
This study examined whether urine dipstick testing might be useful to predict the development of acute kidney injury after an ultramarathon. Participants in the 2011 161-km Western States Endurance Run underwent post-race blood and urine dipstick analyses. Of the 310 race finishers, post-race urine dipstick testing was completed on 152 (49%) and post-race(More)
This study examined whether subjects with chronic low back pain demonstrate exercise-induced analgesia to experimentally induced pressure pain. We employed a repeated measures design to study eight subjects with chronic low back pain (mean +/- standard deviation age = 40 +/- 10, duration of pain = 7 +/- 4 years). Pain ratings were measured immediately(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine how exercise-induced analgesia is affected by the duration and intensity of aerobic exercise. DESIGN Repeated-measures design. SETTING Exercise science laboratory. PARTICIPANTS Convenience sample of 12 healthy male and female volunteers (mean age +/- standard deviation, 32+/-9 y). INTERVENTIONS Pain ratings were assessed before(More)
This study compares body composition characteristics with performance among participants in a 161-km trail ultramarathon. Height, mass, and percent body fat from bioimpedance spectroscopy were measured on 72 starters (17 women, 55 men). Correlation analyses were used to compare body characteristics with finish time, and unpaired t-tests were used to compare(More)