Martin D Hoffman

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PURPOSE Examine changes in demographics of participants and performance trends at the Western States 100-Mile Endurance Run (WSER) since its inception in 1974. METHODS Name, age, sex, and finish information was obtained on runners in the WSER from 1974 to 2007. Linear regression analyses, ANOVA, and t-tests were used to examine participation and(More)
  • M D Hoffman
  • International journal of sports medicine
  • 2010
This report documents performance-related trends in 100-mile (161-km) ultramarathon running competitions in North America. A retrospective analysis of results from 1977 through 2008 revealed that annual finish rates increased initially and then plateaued by the early 1990s at nearly 60%. The fastest times were produced by the 30-39 year age group among the(More)
Participation trends in 100 m (161 km) ultramarathon running competitions in North America were examined from race results from 1977 through 2008. A total of 32, 352 finishes accounted for by 9815 unique individuals were identified. The annual number of races and number of finishes increased exponentially over the study period. This growth in number of(More)
  • M D Hoffman
  • International journal of sports medicine
  • 2008
Little is known about the anthropometric characteristics of ultramarathon runners. The present work reports on the physical characteristics of the 392 (310 males, 82 females) starters and 270 (216 males, 54 females) finishers of the 2007 Western States Endurance Run, one of the largest 161-km trail runs in North America. Among the starters, mean (and 25th(More)
OBJECTIVE To relate changes in body mass, total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid (ECF), and serum sodium concentration ([Na]) from a 161-km ultramarathon to finish time and incidence of hyponatremia. DESIGN Observational. SETTING : The 2008 Rio Del Lago 100-Mile (161-km) Endurance Run in Granite Bay, California. PARTICIPANTS Forty-five runners.(More)
Despite considerable recent growth in ultramarathon running, little is known about the characteristics of the participants. This work documents demographic characteristics of 161-km ultramarathoners. Surveys were completed by 489 of 674 runners entered in two of the largest 161-km ultramarathons in North America in 2009. Respondents had a mean (± SD) age of(More)
PURPOSE Despite increased 161-km ultramarathon participation in recent years, little is known about those who pursue such an activity. This study surveyed entrants in two of the largest 161-km trail ultramarathon runs in North America to explore demographic characteristics and issues that affected race performance. METHODS All entries of the 2009 Western(More)
Biathletes commonly reduce their skiing intensity as they approach the firing line. However, it is not clear how the intensity of the previous exercise affects their shooting results. The purpose of this investigation was to assess shooting performance among elite American biathletes immediately after exercise of various intensities. Shooting performance(More)
Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) typically occurs during or up to 24 hours after prolonged physical activity, and is defined by a serum or plasma sodium concentration below the normal reference range of 135 mEq/L. It is also reported to occur in individual physical activities or during organized endurance events conducted in austere environments in(More)
PURPOSE This work longitudinally assesses the influence of aging and experience on time to complete 161-km ultramarathons. METHODS From 29,331 finishes by 4066 runners who had completed 3 or more 161-km ultramarathons in North America from 1974 through 2010, independent cohorts of men (n = 3,092), women (n = 717), and top-performing men (n = 257) based on(More)