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G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are responsible for the majority of cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters as well as the senses of sight, olfaction and taste. The paradigm of GPCR signalling is the activation of a heterotrimeric GTP binding protein (G protein) by an agonist-occupied receptor. The β(2) adrenergic receptor (β(2)AR)(More)
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are eukaryotic integral membrane proteins that modulate biological function by initiating cellular signalling in response to chemically diverse agonists. Despite recent progress in the structural biology of GPCRs, the molecular basis for agonist binding and allosteric modulation of these proteins is poorly understood.(More)
X-ray crystallography of G protein-coupled receptors and other membrane proteins is hampered by difficulties associated with growing sufficiently large crystals that withstand radiation damage and yield high-resolution data at synchrotron sources. We used an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) with individual 50-femtosecond-duration x-ray pulses to minimize(More)
A detailed protocol for crystallizing membrane proteins that makes use of lipidic mesophases is described. This has variously been referred to as the lipid cubic phase or in meso method. The method has been shown to be quite general in that it has been used to solve X-ray crystallographic structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins, proteins that are(More)
The crystal structure of the β(2)-adrenergic receptor in complex with an agonist and its cognate G protein has just recently been determined. It is now possible to explore in molecular detail the means by which this paradigmatic transmembrane receptor binds agonist, communicates the impulse or signaling event across the membrane, and sets in motion a series(More)
We developed a method that allows release of intact membrane protein complexes from amphipols, bicelles and nanodiscs in the gas phase for observation by mass spectrometry (MS). Current methods involve release of membrane protein complexes from detergent micelles, which reveals subunit composition and lipid binding. We demonstrated that oligomeric complexes(More)
The use of third generation synchrotron sources has led to renewed concern about the effect of ionizing radiation on crystalline biological samples. In general, the problem is seen as one to be avoided. However, in this paper, it is shown that, far from being a hindrance to successful structure determination, radiation damage provides an opportunity for(More)
There has been exponential growth in the number of membrane protein structures determined. Nevertheless, these structures are usually resolved in the absence of their lipid environment. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) simulations enable insertion of membrane proteins into explicit models of lipid bilayers. We have automated the CGMD methodology,(More)