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A combination of in situ high-pressure neutron diffraction at pressures up to 17.5(5) GPa and molecular dynamics simulations employing a many-body interatomic potential model is used to investigate the structure of cold-compressed silica glass. The simulations give a good account of the neutron diffraction results and of existing x-ray diffraction results(More)
>Maternal age is strongly associated with a decrease in the probability of achieving pregnancy and the birth of a healthy child. Among current theories of the mechanism of this decrease is the hypothesis that a progressive degeneration of the respiratory capacity of mitochondria in eggs of women of advanced age leads to an energy deficit and consequent(More)
BACKGROUND Calcium is an important and ubiquitous signalling ion. In most cell types, changes in intracellular calcium concentrations are sensed by calmodulin, a signal transduction protein that regulates cell function through its interactions with kinases and phosphatases. Calcium signals show complex spatiotemporal patterning, but little, if anything, is(More)
Crystalline and amorphous forms of silicon are the principal materials used for solid-state electronics and photovoltaics technologies. Silicon is therefore a well-studied material, although new structures and properties are still being discovered. Compression of bulk silicon, which is tetrahedrally coordinated at atmospheric pressure, results in a(More)
We combine small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) with aerodynamic levitation techniques to study in situ phase transitions in the liquid state under contactless conditions. At very high temperatures, yttria-alumina melts show a first-order transition, previously inferred from phase separation in quenched glasses. We show(More)
Phase transitions in the liquid state can be related to pressure-driven fluctuations developed in the density (i.e., the inverse of the molar volume; ρ = 1/V) or the entropy (S(T)) rather than by gradients in the chemical potential (μ(X), where X is the chemical composition). Experiments and liquid simulation studies now show that such transitions are(More)
The evolution of the X-ray structure factor and corresponding pair distribution function of SiO2 has been measured upon cooling from the melt using high energy X-ray diffraction combined with aerodynamic levitation. Small changes in the position of the average Si-O bond distance and peak width are found to occur at ~1500(100) K in the region of the(More)
The structure of GeO(2) glass was investigated at pressures up to 17.5(5) GPa using in situ time-of-flight neutron diffraction with a Paris-Edinburgh press employing sintered diamond anvils. A new methodology and data correction procedure were developed, enabling a reliable measurement of structure factors that are largely free from diamond Bragg peaks.(More)
When amorphous materials are compressed their structures are expected to change in response to densification. In some cases, the changes in amorphous structure can be discontinuous and they can even have the character of first-order phase transitions. This is a phenomenon referred to as polyamorphism. Most evidence for polyamorphic transitions between low(More)
The atomic structures of magnesium silicate melts are key to understanding processes related to the evolution of the Earth's mantle and represent precursors to the formation of most igneous rocks. Magnesium silicate compositions also represent a major component of many glass ceramics, and depending on their composition can span the entire fragility range of(More)