Martin C J Wale

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OBJECTIVES Determination of causes, trends, and antibiotic resistance in reports of bacterial pathogens isolated from blood in England and Wales from 1990 to 1998. DESIGN Description of bacterial isolates from blood, judged to be clinically significant by microbiology staff, reported to the Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre. SETTING Microbiology(More)
BACKGROUND Community prescribing of antibiotics has decreased substantially in the UK in recent years. We examine the association between pneumonia mortality and recent changes in community-based antibiotic prescribing for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). METHODS Retrospective analysis of aggregated data for pneumonia mortality, influenza(More)
Antimicrobial resistance has increased over the past decade causing concern for public health. Domestic antimicrobial products containing triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenylether), a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent, were introduced in 1997 and have become popular among consumers. Cross-resistance to other antibacterial agents has been(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the rates of, and risk factors for, meningococcal carriage and acquisition among university students. DESIGN Repeated cross sectional study. PARTICIPANTS 2,507 students in their first year at university. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Prevalence of carriage of meningococci and risk factors for carriage and acquisition of meningococci. (More)
The safety of the UK anthrax vaccine in British service personnel was evaluated by a retrospective cohort study of randomly selected personnel from five Royal Air Force bases by investigating adverse medical events and consultation rates for a period before and after vaccination. Vaccination acceptance rate varied from 27 to 89% (P=0.0001). In the(More)
The antibacterial activity of LY146032 was greatly potentiated in the presence of calcium ions. In the presence of a physiological concentration of calcium (ca 100 mg/l: 2.5 mM) the new compound was more active than vancomycin or teicoplanin against a selection of clinical isolates of staphylococci and streptococci. The requirement for calcium could not be(More)
A foundational element of modern healthcare is an evidence-based practice. However, the conduct of research to generate evidence and the subsequent application of research findings are viewed by many Canadian healthcare organizations as separate from healthcare delivery. This mindset impedes effective translation of knowledge into practice. In this article,(More)