Martin Benoit

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Cell-cell adhesion mediated by specific cell-surface molecules is essential for multicellular development. Here we quantify de-adhesion forces at the resolution of individual cell-adhesion molecules, by controlling the interactions between single cells and combining single-molecule force spectroscopy with genetic manipulation. Our measurements are focused(More)
At embryo implantation, it is postulated that the initial contact between blastocyst and maternal tissues is by adhesion of the trophoblast to the uterine epithelium. This cell-to-cell interaction is thought to be critical for implantation, although the actual adhesive forces have never been determined. In the present study, the atomic force microscope(More)
We used an atomic force microscope (AFM) to produce an image of a mixed layer of group A and O red blood cells with a contrast based only on the measured strength of a specific receptor-ligand pair. The image was obtained by measuring and plotting for each image pixel the adhesion force between the mixed RBC layer and the AFM tip functionalized with Helix(More)
P-pili of uropathogenic Escherichia coli mediate the attachment to epithelial cells in the human urinary tract and kidney and therefore play an important role in infection. A better understanding of this mechanism could help to prevent bacteria from spreading but also provides interesting insights into molecular mechanics for future nanotech applications.(More)
Protein-carbohydrate interactions are involved in diverse regulatory processes. To help understand the mechanics and kinetics of dissociation of receptor-ligand complexes, we have analyzed the separation of lactose and the N-glycan chains of asialofetuin (ASF) from three lectins and an immunoglobulin G fraction by surface plasmon resonance at zero force and(More)
dispersed genes in different lineages. First, the cluster may have been broken up in organisms with elevated rates of genome evolution, such as C. intestinalis, C. elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. This implies that cluster integrity in other lineages may not be due to selection. Conversely, clusters may have been maintained in some lineages due to(More)
Here we report a new combination of the patch-clamp technique with the atomic force microscope (AFM). A planar patch-clamp chip microstructured from borosilicate glass was used as a support for mechanical probing of living cells. The setup not only allows for immobilizing even a non-adherent cell for measurements of its mechanical properties, but also for(More)
A parallel assay for the quantification of single-molecule binding forces was developed based on differential unbinding force measurements where ligand-receptor interactions are compared with the unzipping forces of DNA hybrids. Using the DNA zippers as molecular force sensors, the efficient discrimination between specific and nonspecific interactions was(More)
The discharge of the Cnidarian stinging organelle, the nematocyst, is one of the fastest processes in biology and involves volume changes of the highly pressurised (150 bar) capsule of up to 50%. Hitherto, the molecular basis for the unusual biomechanical properties of nematocysts has been elusive, as their structure was mainly defined as a stress-resistant(More)
Quantitative analysis of cellular interactions with the extracellular environment is necessary to gain an understanding of how cells regulate adhesion in the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms, and how changes in cell adhesion contribute to diseases. We provide a practical guide to quantify the adhesive strength of living animal cells to(More)