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OBJECTIVE To characterize the voltage-gated ion channels in human beta-cells from nondiabetic donors and their role in glucose-stimulated insulin release. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Insulin release was measured from intact islets. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments and measurements of cell capacitance were performed on isolated beta-cells. The ion(More)
The scientific, medical, and diagnostic communities have been presented the most powerful tool for quantitative nucleic acids analysis: real-time PCR [Bustin, S.A., 2004. A-Z of Quantitative PCR. IUL Press, San Diego, CA]. This new technique is a refinement of the original Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) developed by Kary Mullis and coworkers in the mid(More)
The transcriptional machinery in individual cells is controlled by a relatively small number of molecules, which may result in stochastic behavior in gene activity. Because of technical limitations in current collection and recording methods, most gene expression measurements are carried out on populations of cells and therefore reflect average mRNA levels.(More)
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main neuroinhibitory transmitter in the brain. Here we show that GABA in the extracellular space may affect the fate of pathogenic T lymphocytes entering the brain. We examined in encephalitogenic T cells if they expressed functional GABA channels that could be activated by the low (nM-1 microM), physiological(More)
OBJECTIVE Paracrine signaling via gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) has been documented in rodent islets. Here we have studied the importance of GABAergic signaling in human pancreatic islets. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Expression of GABA(A)Rs in islet cells was investigated by quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry, and(More)
The neuronal soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex is essential for synaptic vesicle exocytosis, but its study has been limited by the neonatal lethality of murine SNARE knockouts. Here, we describe a viable mouse line carrying a mutation in the b-isoform of neuronal SNARE synaptosomal-associated protein of 25(More)
Even in an apparently homogeneous population of cells there are considerable differences between individual cells. A response to a stimulus of a cell population or tissue may be consistent and gradual while the single-cell response might be binary and apparently irregular. The origin of this variability may be preprogrammed or stochastic and a study of this(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to elucidate the cellular mechanism underlying the suppression of glucose-induced insulin secretion in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS C57BL6J mice were fed a HFD or a normal diet (ND) for 3 or 15 weeks. Plasma insulin and glucose levels in vivo were assessed by intraperitoneal(More)
BACKGROUND Gene expression has a strong stochastic element resulting in highly variable mRNA levels between individual cells, even in a seemingly homogeneous cell population. Access to fundamental information about cellular mechanisms, such as correlated gene expression, motivates measurements of multiple genes in individual cells. Quantitative reverse(More)
Glucagon, secreted by pancreatic islet α cells, is the principal hyperglycemic hormone. In diabetes, glucagon secretion is not suppressed at high glucose, exacerbating the consequences of insufficient insulin secretion, and is inadequate at low glucose, potentially leading to fatal hypoglycemia. The causal mechanisms remain unknown. Here we show that α cell(More)