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In this paper, we describe two attacks on IEEE 802.11 based wireless LANs. The first attack is an improved key recovery attack on WEP, which reduces the average number of packets an attacker has to intercept to recover the secret key. The second attack is (according to our knowledge) the first practical attack on WPA secured wireless networks, besides(More)
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are gateways for nucleocytoplasmic exchange. To analyze their structure in a close-to-life state, we studied transport-active, intact nuclei from Dictyostelium discoideum by means of cryoelectron tomography. Subvolumes of the tomograms containing individual NPCs were extracted in silico and subjected to three-dimensional(More)
Nuclear pore complexes reside in the nuclear envelope of eukaryotic cells and mediate the nucleocytoplasmic exchange of macromolecules. Traffic is regulated by mobile transport receptors that target their cargo to the central translocation channel, where phenylalanine-glycine-rich repeats serve as binding sites. The structural analysis of the nuclear pore(More)
The generation of mathematical models of biological processes, the simulation of these processes under different conditions, and the comparison and integration of multiple data sets are explicit goals of systems biology that require the knowledge of the absolute quantity of the system's components. To date, systematic estimates of cellular protein(More)
The structure of the 26S proteasome from Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been determined to a resolution of 9.1 Å by cryoelectron microscopy and single particle analysis. In addition, chemical cross-linking in conjunction with mass spectrometry has been used to identify numerous residue pairs in close proximity to each other, providing an array of spatial(More)
The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is a fundamental component of all eukaryotic cells that facilitates nucleocytoplasmic exchange of macromolecules. It is assembled from multiple copies of about 30 nucleoporins. Due to its size and complex composition, determining the structure of the NPC is an enormous challenge, and the overall architecture of the NPC(More)
The identification of proximate amino acids by chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry (XL-MS) facilitates the structural analysis of homogeneous protein complexes. We gained distance restraints on a modular interaction network of protein complexes affinity-purified from human cells by applying an adapted XL-MS protocol. Systematic analysis of human(More)
Systems biology conceptualizes biological systems as dynamic networks of interacting elements, whereby functionally important properties are thought to emerge from the structure of such networks. Owing to the ubiquitous role of complexes of interacting proteins in biological systems, their subunit composition and temporal and spatial arrangement within the(More)
Filopodia are finger-like extensions of the cell surface that are involved in sensing the environment, in attachment of particles for phagocytosis, in anchorage of cells on a substratum, and in the response to chemoattractants or other guidance cues. Filopodia present an excellent model for actin-driven membrane protrusion. They grow at their tips by the(More)
Mass-spectrometry-based methods for relative proteome quantification have broadly affected life science research. However, important research directions, particularly those involving mathematical modelling and simulation of biological processes, also critically depend on absolutely quantitative data--that is, knowledge of the concentration of the expressed(More)