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Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are gateways for nucleocytoplasmic exchange. To analyze their structure in a close-to-life state, we studied transport-active, intact nuclei from Dictyostelium discoideum by means of cryoelectron tomography. Subvolumes of the tomograms containing individual NPCs were extracted in silico and subjected to three-dimensional(More)
In this paper, we describe two attacks on IEEE 802.11 based wireless LANs. The first attack is an improved key recovery attack on WEP, which reduces the average number of packets an attacker has to intercept to recover the secret key. The second attack is (according to our knowledge) the first practical attack on WPA secured wireless networks, besides(More)
The structure of the 26S proteasome from Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been determined to a resolution of 9.1 Å by cryoelectron microscopy and single particle analysis. In addition, chemical cross-linking in conjunction with mass spectrometry has been used to identify numerous residue pairs in close proximity to each other, providing an array of spatial(More)
The generation of mathematical models of biological processes, the simulation of these processes under different conditions, and the comparison and integration of multiple data sets are explicit goals of systems biology that require the knowledge of the absolute quantity of the system's components. To date, systematic estimates of cellular protein(More)
Filopodia are finger-like extensions of the cell surface that are involved in sensing the environment, in attachment of particles for phagocytosis, in anchorage of cells on a substratum, and in the response to chemoattractants or other guidance cues. Filopodia present an excellent model for actin-driven membrane protrusion. They grow at their tips by the(More)
Nuclear pore complexes reside in the nuclear envelope of eukaryotic cells and mediate the nucleocytoplasmic exchange of macromolecules. Traffic is regulated by mobile transport receptors that target their cargo to the central translocation channel, where phenylalanine-glycine-rich repeats serve as binding sites. The structural analysis of the nuclear pore(More)
Systems biology conceptualizes biological systems as dynamic networks of interacting elements, whereby functionally important properties are thought to emerge from the structure of such networks. Owing to the ubiquitous role of complexes of interacting proteins in biological systems, their subunit composition and temporal and spatial arrangement within the(More)
Recent large-scale studies revealed cell-type specific proteomes. However, protein complexes, the basic functional modules of a cell, have been so far mostly considered as static entities with well-defined structures. The co-expression of their members has not been systematically charted at the protein level. We used measurements of protein abundance across(More)
Chemical cross-linking of reactive groups in native proteins and protein complexes in combination with the identification of cross-linked sites by mass spectrometry has been in use for more than a decade. Recent advances in instrumentation, cross-linking protocols, and analysis software have led to a renewed interest in this technique, which promises to(More)
Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) is a targeted mass spectrometric method that is increasingly used in proteomics for the detection and quantification of sets of preselected proteins at high sensitivity, reproducibility and accuracy. Currently, data from SRM measurements are mostly evaluated subjectively by manual inspection on the basis of ad hoc(More)