Martin B. Kalinowski

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A global monitoring system for atmospheric xenon radioactivity is being established as part of the International Monitoring System to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The isotopic activity ratios of (135)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133)Xe and (131m)Xe are of interest for distinguishing nuclear explosion sources from civilian(More)
Atmospheric radioactivity is monitored for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, with xenon isotopes 131mXe, 133Xe, 133mXe and 135Xe serving as important indicators of nuclear explosions. The treaty-relevant interpretation of atmospheric concentrations of radioxenon is enhanced by quantifying radioxenon emissions released from(More)
This paper gives the yearly (85)Kr emissions of all known reprocessing facilities, which are the main sources of (85)Kr in the atmosphere since 1945, for the years 1945 until 2000. According to this inventory 10,600 PBq (Peta=10(15)) of (85)Kr have been globally emitted from the year 1945 until the end of 2000. The global atmospheric inventory at the end of(More)
Verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty is a complex undertaking. A monitoring system comprising a global network of 321 seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide stations is used to detect signals that could indicate a possible nuclear explosion. This system daily sends more than 10 GB of raw data to the Vienna based(More)
Krypton-85 is mainly produced in nuclear reactors by fission of uranium and plutonium and released during chopping and dissolution of spent fuel rods in nuclear reprocessing facilities. As noble gas it is suited as a passive tracer for evaluation of atmospheric transport models. Furthermore, research is ongoing to assess its quality as an indicator for(More)
We report on a new design of a vacuum ultra violet (VUV) lamp for direct optical excitation of high laying atomic states, e.g., for excitation of metastable rare gas atoms. The lamp can be directly mounted to ultra-high vacuum vessels (p ≤ 10(-10)mbar). It is driven by a 2.45 GHz microwave source. For optimum operation, it requires powers of ~20 W. The VUV(More)
The determination of isotope ratios of noble-gas atoms has many applications, e.g., in physics, nuclear-arms control, and Earth sciences. For several applications, the concentration of specific noble-gas isotopes (e.g., Kr and Ar) is so low that single-atom detection is highly desirable for a precise determination of the concentration. As an important step(More)
A database with information on about 500 cases of atmospheric radioactivity releases from underground nuclear tests is analysed. The data are statistically evaluated and systematically aggregated in order to characterise prompt uncontrolled as well as delayed operational releases of radioactivity into the atmosphere. The focus is put on the latter. The(More)
For wide-area atmospheric monitoring, krypton-85 is the best indicator for clandestine plutonium separations. The detection and false alarm rates were determined from weekly samples at five different distances from the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant between 1985 and 1988. The detection rate for the separation of 4 kg of plutonium per week was found to be as(More)
This study reports on a fast and accurate assessment of zero time of certain nuclear events using La-140/Ba-140 isotopic activity ratio. For a non-steady nuclear fission reaction, the dating is not possible. For the hypothesis of a nuclear explosion and for a release from a steady state nuclear fission reaction the zero-times will differ. This assessment is(More)