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There exists a surprising theoretical prediction for a small system: its microcanonical heat capacity can become negative. An increase of energy can-under certain conditions-lead to a lower temperature. Here we present experimental evidence that a cluster containing exactly 147 sodium atoms does indeed have a negative microcanonical heat capacity near its(More)
A quantitative model capturing Deep Reactive Ion Etch (DRIE) pattern density effects is presented. Our previous work has explored the causes of wafer-level variation and demonstrated die-level interactions resulting from pattern density and reactant species consumption [1]. Several reports have focused on experimental evidence and modeling of feature-level(More)
We demonstrate a micro-electroporation device for cell lysis prior to subcellular analysis. Simple circuit models show that electrical lysis method is advantageous because it is selective towards plasma membrane while leaving organelle membrane undamaged. In addition, miniaturization of this concept leads to negligible heat generation and bubble formation.(More)
We have developed a microfabricated device for use in parallel luminescent single-cell assays that can sort populations upon the basis of dynamic functional responses to stimuli. This device is composed of a regular array of noncontact single-cell traps. These traps use dielectrophoresis to stably confine cells and hold them against disrupting fluid flows.(More)
We present an integrated microfluidic system that achieves efficient mixing between two miscible liquid streams by introducing a gas phase, forming a segmented gas-liquid (slug) flow, and completely separating the mixed liquid and gas streams in a planar capillary separator. The recirculation motion associated with segmented flow enhances advection in(More)
Inhaltsverzeichnls s~i~ L E i n ] e i t u n g . Allgemeine ProblemJage. Terminologie. Materi~L Technik . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 I I . Beschreibung der bivalenten Rassen zweier F~-PflaP.zen yon Pi s . . . . 310 I I I . Zy to lo~e tier untersuchten Formen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 A. A]lgemeine Zytologie .(More)
The Alliance for Cellular Signaling is a large-scale collaboration designed to answer global questions about signalling networks. Pathways will be studied intensively in two cells--B lymphocytes (the cells of the immune system) and cardiac myocytes--to facilitate quantitative modelling. One goal is to catalyse complementary research in individual(More)
Melting temperatures of Na clusters show size-dependent fluctuations that have resisted interpretation so far. Here we discuss that these temperatures, in fact, cannot be expected to exhibit an easily understandable behavior. The energy and entropy differences between the liquid and the solid clusters turn out to be much more relevant parameters. They(More)
Energetic and entropic influences on the melting temperatures of size selected sodium clusters are experimentally separated. It is shown that the energetic difference between solid and liquid is the leading influence for the still puzzling features in the size dependence of sodium melting points. Additionally, this energy difference decreases towards(More)