Martin Anger

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Pseudogenes populate the mammalian genome as remnants of artefactual incorporation of coding messenger RNAs into transposon pathways. Here we show that a subset of pseudogenes generates endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) in mouse oocytes. These endo-siRNAs are often processed from double-stranded RNAs formed by hybridization of spliced(More)
Accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis depends on shugoshin proteins that prevent precocious dissociation of cohesin from centromeres. Shugoshins associate with PP2A, which is thought to dephosphorylate cohesin and thereby prevent cleavage by separase during meiosis I. A crystal structure of a complex between a fragment of human Sgo1 and(More)
BACKGROUND Missegregation of chromosomes during meiosis in human females causes aneuploidy, including trisomy 21, and is thought also to be the major cause of age-related infertility. Most errors are thought to occur at the first meiotic division. The high frequency of errors raises questions as to whether the surveillance mechanism known as the spindle(More)
In yeast, resolution of chiasmata in meiosis I requires proteolytic cleavage along chromosome arms of cohesin's Rec8 subunit by separase. Since activation of separase by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) is supposedly not required for meiosis I in Xenopus oocytes, it has been suggested that animal cells might resolve chiasmata by a separase-independent(More)
A master regulator of DNA replication, CDC6 also functions in the DNA-replication checkpoint by preventing DNA rereplication. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) regulate the amount and localization of CDC6 throughout the cell cycle; CDC6 phosphorylation after DNA replication initiation leads to its proteolysis in yeast or translocation to the cytoplasm in(More)
Both murine endogenous retrovirus-L (MuERV-L) and intracisternal A particle (IAP), two autonomous long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, are activated during genome activation in the preimplantation mouse embryo, and both sense and antisense transcripts are detected in 2-cell and 8-cell stage embryos. Because RNA interference (RNAi) functions in the(More)
According to the Dobzhansky-Muller model, hybrid sterility is a consequence of the independent evolution of related taxa resulting in incompatible genomic interactions of their hybrids. The model implies that the incompatibilities evolve randomly, unless a particular gene or nongenic sequence diverges much faster than the rest of the genome. Here we propose(More)
Proteolytic activity of separase is required for chiasma resolution during meiosis I in mouse oocytes. Rec8, the meiosis-specific alpha-kleisin subunit of cohesin, is a key target of separase in yeast. Is the equivalent protein also a target in mammals? We show here that separase cleaves mouse Rec8 at three positions in vitro but only when the latter is(More)
Chromosome segregation errors are highly frequent in mammalian female meiosis, and their incidence gradually increases with maternal age. The fate of aneuploid eggs is obviously dependent on the stringency of mechanisms for detecting unattached or repairing incorrectly attached kinetochores. In case of their failure, the newly formed embryo will inherit the(More)
A-T (ataxia telangiectasia) individuals frequently display gonadal atrophy, and Atm-/- mice show spermatogenic failure due to arrest at prophase of meiosis I. Chromosomal movements take place during meiotic prophase, with telomeres congregating on the nuclear envelope to transiently form a cluster during the leptotene/zygotene transition (bouquet(More)