Martin Amarell

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Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and freezing of gait (FOG) (freezers) demonstrate high gait variability. The objective of this study was to determine whether freezers display a higher variability of upper limb movements and elucidate if these changes correlate with gait. We were the first group to compare directly objectively measured gait and upper(More)
Stress has been shown to be a strong modulator of learning and memory in animals. We employ operant training of aerial respiratory behaviour in our model system, the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, to show that application of an acute consistent physical stressor enhances memory formation. A single 30 min operant conditioning training session, which normally(More)
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common and disabling symptom in patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD). Treatment options are often limited, since dopaminergic medication can either alleviate or aggravate FOG, and deep brain stimulation does not seem to suppress FOG as well as other PD symptoms [5]. In the last decade, physiotherapeutic studies moved(More)
Repeated spaced training sessions of contingent tactile stimulation to the pneumostome as it opens are required to cause long-term memory (LTM) formation of aerial respiratory behaviour making if difficult to determine exactly when memory forms. We have devised a single-trial aversive operant conditioning training procedure in Lymnaea to be better able to(More)
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