Martin Alvero

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Data obtained in a controlled field study over 5 years in 4 communities showed that the provision of sanitary facilities for human waste disposal can reduce the incidence of cholera by as much as 68%, while the provision of a safe water supply can decrease it by 73%. Where both toilets and water supplies are provided, the incidence can be reduced by as much(More)
In the recent description of the hominin postcranial material from Dmanisi, Georgia, Lordkipanidze and colleagues (Lordkipanidze et al. [2007] Nature 449: 305-310) claim that the Dmanisi hominins walked with more medially oriented feet than do modern humans. They draw this functional inference from two postcranial features: a wide talar neck angle and a(More)
As part of a broad study on the epidemiology of cholera El Tor in the Philippines, the authors conducted bacteriological surveys among the community contacts of suspect cholera patients hospitalized in the Negros Occidental Provincial Hospital from August through October 1962. Fourteen (2%) of 698 community contacts of persons with confirmed cholera(More)
The introduction of cholera into many of the islands of the Philippines in 1961 often occurred in an explosive manner. The disease was introduced into Bacolod City and Talisay in Negros Occidental Province in such a manner in November 1961. The authors describe the results of an analysis of hospital and health department records in Bacolod City and Talisay(More)
As part of a broad epidemiological investigation of cholera El Tor in the Philippines, the authors cultured rectal swabs obtained from the household contacts of cholera patients hospitalized in the Negros Occidental Provincial Hospital from August through October 1962. Additional infected persons were found in 25 (60%) of the 42 households with confirmed(More)
The first known long-term carrier of cholera, found in the Philippines, is described. The carrier, Dolores M., who had suffered from El Tor cholera in August 1962, continued intermittently to excrete vibrios of the same characteristics as the original isolates until the date of reporting (1966). Duodenal intubation proved that the vibrios are lodged in her(More)
A controlled field trial on some 584 000 people in an endemic cholera El Tor area in the Philippines demonstrated that cholera vaccines gave moderate protection of short duration. Injection of a single dose of vaccine prepared from either Vibrio cholerae or El Tor vibrios gave over 50% protection for the first 2 months. The immunity conferred by the V.(More)
From May 1964 to December 1965, a controlled field trial of the effectiveness of cholera and cholera El Tor vaccines was conducted in Negros Occidental, Philippines. Some people did not volunteer for vaccination, and of those who did some received cholera vaccine and others a control (typhoid) vaccine. After analysing he incidence of cholera among these(More)
After freedom from cholera for over a quarter of a century, the Philippines in 1961 experienced an epidemic of cholera. The disease, shown to be caused by the El Tor strain of cholera vibrio, was clinically indistinguishable from classical Asian cholera. Studies were undertaken in Negros Occidental Province from August to October 1962 to characterize(More)
Cholera carrier studies in the Philippines in 1964-66 showed a prevalence rate of 21.7% among household contacts of cholera patients, and 8.4% in occupants of houses next door to one where a cholera patient lived, as opposed to 0.34% in the general population. The duration of the carrier state among 19 household carriers isolated for examination varied from(More)
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