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Known agonists of the orphan receptor GPR35 are kynurenic acid, zaprinast, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylproplyamino) benzoic acid, and lysophosphatidic acids. Their relatively low affinities for GPR35 and prominent off-target effects at other pathways, however, diminish their utility for understanding GPR35 signaling and for identifying potential therapeutic uses of(More)
Spontaneous pupillary behaviour in darkness provides information about a subject's level of vigilance. To establish infrared video pupillography (IVP) as a reliable and objective test in the detection and quantification of daytime sleepiness, the definition of numerical parameters is an important precondition characterising spontaneous pupil behaviour(More)
Opioid drugs and endogenous opioid peptides exert profound effects on body temperature. The particular effect seen is dependent on species, ambient temperature, degree of restraint imposed on the subject, route of drug administration, and a number of other factors. A major determinant is the opioid receptor type with which the agonist forms a complex.(More)
Chemokines are a family of small proteins involved in cellular migration and intercellular communication. Although the chemokines and their receptors are located throughout the brain, they are not distributed uniformly. Among the chemokines and their receptors that are arrayed disproportionately in glia and neurons are monocyte chemotactic protein-1/CC(More)
Recognition of the importance of the endocannabinoid system in both homeostasis and pathologic responses raised interest recently in the development of therapeutic agents based on this system. The CB2 receptor, a component of the endocannabinoid system, has significant influence on immune function and inflammatory responses. Inflammatory responses are major(More)
There is irrefutable proof that opioids and other classes of centrally acting drugs have profound effects on the immune system. Evidence is mounting that products of the immune system, such as chemokines, can reciprocally alter the actions of these drugs and the endogenous ligands for their receptors. Chemokines are a family of small (8 to 12 kDa) proteins(More)
Previous studies from our laboratory indicated that selective cannabinoid CB(2) agonists were able to attenuate cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The goal of current study is to further test whether this attenuation involves cerebral microcirculatory function during I/R injury. Middle cerebral artery occlusion with reperfusion (MCAO/R) was(More)
Previous reports from this laboratory, and others, have shown that exogenous mu and kappa opioids modulate both cellular and humoral immune responses. Our earlier work has suggested that accessory cells may serve as a target for the direct effects of kappa opioid compounds. In the present study, the function of the macrophage cell line P388D1 was modulated(More)
Opioids and opioid peptides have been shown by numerous laboratories to modulate various parameters of the immune response, but little attention has been given to the type of opioid receptor that might be involved. This study focuses on the in vitro influences of morphine and DAMGE (Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-N-Me-Phe-Gly-ol), mu-selective agonists, and U50,488H and(More)