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Spontaneous pupillary behaviour in darkness provides information about a subject's level of vigilance. To establish infrared video pupillography (IVP) as a reliable and objective test in the detection and quantification of daytime sleepiness, the definition of numerical parameters is an important precondition characterising spontaneous pupil behaviour(More)
Previous reports from this laboratory, and others, have shown that exogenous mu and kappa opioids modulate both cellular and humoral immune responses. Our earlier work has suggested that accessory cells may serve as a target for the direct effects of kappa opioid compounds. In the present study, the function of the macrophage cell line P388D1 was modulated(More)
The present study was designed to test rigorously, using isobolographic analysis, whether there was a potentiative interaction between delta and mu agonists administered i.c.v. to rats. Factors such as the specific fixed ratio of compounds, the analgesic assay and the mu agonist were varied to determine the generality of the results. Male rats were(More)
The chemokines use G protein-coupled receptors to regulate the migratory and proadhesive responses of leukocytes. Based on observations that G protein-coupled receptors undergo heterologous desensitization, we have examined the ability of chemokines to also influence the perception of pain by cross-desensitizing opioid G protein-coupled receptors function(More)
There is irrefutable proof that opioids and other classes of centrally acting drugs have profound effects on the immune system. Evidence is mounting that products of the immune system, such as chemokines, can reciprocally alter the actions of these drugs and the endogenous ligands for their receptors. Chemokines are a family of small (8 to 12 kDa) proteins(More)
Recognition of the importance of the endocannabinoid system in both homeostasis and pathologic responses raised interest recently in the development of therapeutic agents based on this system. The CB2 receptor, a component of the endocannabinoid system, has significant influence on immune function and inflammatory responses. Inflammatory responses are major(More)
Opioid drugs and endogenous opioid peptides exert profound effects on body temperature. The particular effect seen is dependent on species, ambient temperature, degree of restraint imposed on the subject, route of drug administration, and a number of other factors. A major determinant is the opioid receptor type with which the agonist forms a complex.(More)
Gram-negative sepsis and subsequent endotoxic shock remain major health problems in the United States. The present study examined the role of morphine in inducing sepsis. Mice administered morphine by the subcutaneous implantation of a slow-release pellet developed colonization of the liver, spleen, and peritoneal cavity with gram-negative and other enteric(More)
Chemokines are a family of small proteins involved in cellular migration and intercellular communication. Although the chemokines and their receptors are located throughout the brain, they are not distributed uniformly. Among the chemokines and their receptors that are arrayed disproportionately in glia and neurons are monocyte chemotactic protein-1/CC(More)