Martin A Schwartz

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Cell migration is a highly integrated multistep process that orchestrates embryonic morphogenesis; contributes to tissue repair and regeneration; and drives disease progression in cancer, mental retardation, atherosclerosis, and arthritis. The migrating cell is highly polarized with complex regulatory pathways that spatially and temporally integrate its(More)
Soluble factors from serum such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) are thought to activate the small GTP-binding protein Rho based on their ability to induce actin stress fibers and focal adhesions in a Rho-dependent manner. Cell adhesion to extracellular matrices (ECM) has also been proposed to activate Rho, but this point has been controversial due to the(More)
Adhesion to ECM is required for many cell functions including cytoskeletal organization, migration, and proliferation. We observed that when cells first adhere to extracellular matrix, they spread rapidly by extending filopodia-like projections and lamellipodia. These structures are similar to the Rac- and Cdc42-dependent structures observed in growth(More)
Integrins receive signals from other receptors that lead to activation of ligand binding (inside-out signaling) and matrix assembly. Upon binding ligands, they also activate intracellular signaling pathways. These signals converse with pathways that are initiated by soluble ligands to regulate cell functions. In this way, cell adhesion is coordinated with(More)
Shear stress is a fundamental determinant of vascular homeostasis, regulating vascular remodelling, cardiac development and atherogenesis, but the mechanisms of transduction are poorly understood. Previous work showed that the conversion of integrins to a high-affinity state mediates a subset of shear responses, including cell alignment and gene expression.(More)
Cell migration affects all morphogenetic processes and contributes to numerous diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. For most cells in most environments, movement begins with protrusion of the cell membrane followed by the formation of new adhesions at the cell front that link the actin cytoskeleton to the substratum, generation of traction(More)
Programmed cell death (PCD) or apoptosis is a naturally occurring cell suicide pathway induced in a variety of cell types. In many cases, PCD is induced by the withdrawal of specific hormones or growth factors that function as survival factors. In this study, we have investigated the potential role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) as a cell survival(More)
Integrin-mediated adhesion is known to stimulate production of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (4,5-PIP2) and increase 4,5-PIP2 hydrolysis in response to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). We now show that treatment of cells with lovastatin, which inhibits modification of small GTP-binding proteins, reduced PIP2 levels and decreased calcium(More)
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is activated and localized at focal adhesions upon cell adhesion to extracellular matrices. Cells lacking FAK show increased focal adhesion number and decreased cell migration, functions that are regulated by the small GTPase Rho. We now report that fibroblasts from FAK-/- mice failed to transiently inhibit Rho activity when(More)
Forces that are associated with blood flow are major determinants of vascular morphogenesis and physiology. Blood flow is crucial for blood vessel development during embryogenesis and for regulation of vessel diameter in adult life. It is also a key factor in atherosclerosis, which, despite the systemic nature of major risk factors, occurs mainly in regions(More)