Martin A. Philbert

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Many biological subdisciplines that regularly assess dose-response relationships have identified an evolutionarily conserved process in which a low dose of a stressful stimulus activates an adaptive response that increases the resistance of the cell or organism to a moderate to severe level of stress. Due to a lack of frequent interaction among scientists(More)
PURPOSE Development of new therapeutic drug delivery systems is an area of significant research interest. The ability to directly target a therapeutic agent to a tumor site would minimize systemic drug exposure, thus providing the potential for increasing the therapeutic index. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the uptake of a(More)
Treatment of brain cancer remains a challenge despite recent improvements in surgery and multimodal adjuvant therapy. Drug therapies of brain cancer have been particularly inefficient, due to the blood-brain barrier and the non-specificity of the potentially toxic drugs. The nanoparticle has emerged as a potential vector for brain delivery, able to overcome(More)
Based on existing data and previous work, a series of studies is proposed as a basis toward a pragmatic early step in transforming toxicity testing. These studies were assembled into a data-driven framework that invokes successive tiers of testing with margin of exposure (MOE) as the primary metric. The first tier of the framework integrates data from(More)
Glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-related enzyme systems in astrocytes play an important role in cellular defense against oxidative stress in the nervous system. The present study was designed to characterize the cellular responses of cultured astrocytes to chemically-induced perturbations of mitochondrial and cytosolic GSH homeostasis. Treatment of(More)
Previously, all biological measurements of intracellular electric fields (E fields), using voltage dyes or patch/voltage clamps, were confined to cellular membranes, which account for <0.1% of the total cellular volume. These membrane-dependent techniques also frequently require lengthy calibration steps for each cell or cell type measured. A new 30-nm(More)
The scientific evidence in humans and animals relevant to cancer risks, neurologic disease, reproductive risks, and immunotoxicity of 2,4-D was reviewed. Despite several thorough in vitro and in vivo animal studies, no experimental evidence exists supporting the theory that 2,4-D or any of its salts and esters damages DNA under physiologic conditions.(More)