Martin A. Lema

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We present a simple and realistic model of the circadian pacemaker that can be interpreted in molecular terms. The model, which consists of a single time-delay differential equation, simulates the expression of a generic clock protein that inhibits its own expression through a feedback mechanism. Despite its simplicity, this model fulfils most of the(More)
BACKGROUND Protein structure research often deals with the comparison of two or more structures of the same protein, for instance when handling alternative structure models for the same protein, point mutants, molecule movements, structure predictions, etc. Often the difference between structures is small, restricted to a local neighborhood, and buried in(More)
Experience gained in the risk assessment (RA) of genetically engineered (GE) crops since their first experimental introductions in the early nineties, has increased the level of familiarity with these breeding methodologies and has motivated several agencies and expert groups worldwide to revisit the scientific criteria underlying the RA process. Along(More)
Risk assessment is a reasoned, structured approach to address uncertainty based on scientific and technical evidence. It forms the foundation for regulatory decision-making, which is bound by legislative and policy requirements, as well as the need for making timely decisions using available resources. In order to be most useful, environmental risk(More)
The low-level presence (LLP) of genetically engineered (GE) seeds that have been approved in the country of origin but not the country of import presents challenges for regulators in both seed importing and exporting countries, as well as for the international seed trade and the farmers who rely on it. In addition to legal, financial and regulatory(More)
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