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– The design (synthesis) of analog electrical circuits starts with a high-level statement of the circuit's desired behavior and requires creating a circuit that satisfies the specified design goals. Analog circuit synthesis entails the creation of both the topology and the sizing (numerical values) of all of the circuit's components. The difficulty of the(More)
Genetic programming is an automatic method for creating a computer program or other complex structure to solve a problem. This paper first reviews various instances where genetic programming has previously produced human-competitive results. It then presents new human-competi-Ž. tive results involving the automatic synthesis of the design of both the(More)
– It would be desirable if computers could solve problems without the need for a human to write the detailed programmatic steps. That is, it would be desirable to have a domain-independent automatic programming technique in which "What You Want Is What You Get" ("WYWIWYG" – pronounced "wow-eee-wig"). Genetic programming is such a technique. This paper(More)
Recent work has demonstrated that genetic programming is capable of automatically creating complex networks (such as analog electrical circuits and controllers) whose behavior is modeled by linear and non-linear continuous-time differential equations and whose behavior matches prespecified output values. The concentrations of substances participating in(More)
Most real-world controllers are composed of proportional, integrative, and derivative signal processing blocks. The so-called PID controller was invented and patented by Callender and Stevenson in 1939. In 1942, Ziegler and Nichols developed mathematical rules for automatically selecting the parameter values for PID controllers. In their influential 1995(More)
This paper demonstrates the ability of genetic programming to evolve analog circuits that perform digital functions and mixed analog-digital circuits. The evolved circuits include two purely digital circuits (a 100 nano-second NAND circuit and a two-instruction arithmetic logic unit circuit) and one mixed-signal circuit, namely a three-input(More)
This paper reviews the use of genetic programming as an automated invention machine for the synthesis of both the topology and sizing of analog electrical circuits. The paper focuses on the importance of the developmental representation in this process. The paper makes the point that genetic programming now routinely delivers high-return human-competitive(More)