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Evolutionary questions regarding aging address patterns of within-individual change in traits during a lifetime. However, most studies report associations between age and, for example, reproduction based on cross-sectional comparisons, which may be confounded with progressive changes in phenotypic population composition. Unbiased estimation of patterns of(More)
1. Interest in the evolutionary origin and maintenance of individual behavioural variation and behavioural plasticity has increased in recent years. 2. Consistent individual behavioural differences imply limited behavioural plasticity, but the proximate causes and wider consequences of this potential constraint remain poorly understood. To date, few(More)
In cooperative breeders, the tension between the opposing forces of kin selection and kin competition is at its most severe. Although philopatry facilitates kin selection, it also increases the risk of inbreeding. When dispersal is limited, extra-pair paternity might be an important mechanism to avoid inbreeding, but evidence for this is equivocal. The(More)
Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is an important cytokine in inflammatory processes by functioning as a chemoattractant and as an activator of oxygen metabolism. In the present study we demonstrate that beta 2-adrenergic agonists potentiate the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and IL-1 induced production of IL-8 by human monocytes. In addition, beta 2-adrenergic activation(More)
Species' responses to environmental changes such as global warming are affected not only by trends in mean conditions, but also by natural and human-induced environmental fluctuations. Methods are needed to predict how such environmental variation affects ecological and evolutionary processes, in order to design effective strategies to conserve biodiversity(More)
alpha(1)-Adrenergic receptors (ARs) are not expressed by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy human individuals. However, in the present study we show that alpha(1)-ARs can be induced in lymphocytes after culturing with either the mitogen PHA or the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. Moreover, incubation of these activated PBMCs with(More)
In this paper, we describe that met-enkephalin and/or enkephalin-containing intermediary peptides of the prohormone pro-enkephalin A are produced and secreted by human peripheral blood T cells and monocytes. The peptides are produced after stimulation with the mitogenic monoclonal antibodies anti-CD2.1/2.2 and anti-CD28. In monocytes, enkephalin synthesis(More)
One hypothesis explaining extra-pair reproduction is that socially monogamous females mate with extra-pair males to adjust the coefficient of inbreeding (f) of extra-pair offspring (EPO) relative to that of within-pair offspring (WPO) they would produce with their socially paired male. Such adjustment of offspring f requires non-random extra-pair(More)
The relative importance of environmental colour for extinction risk compared with other aspects of environmental noise (mean and interannual variability) is poorly understood. Such knowledge is currently relevant, as climate change can cause the mean, variability and temporal autocorrelation of environmental variables to change. Here, we predict that the(More)
Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is one of the iso-forms of enolase, a glycolytic enzyme found in the neuroendocrine system. NSE is one of the most widely used tumor markers in small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). To assess the value of NSE in discriminating between the sites of metastases in SCLC-patients with and without cerebral involvement, serial NSE(More)