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Nitrate is an important component of (secondary inorganic) fine aerosols in Europe. We present a model simulation for the year 1995 in which we account for the formation of secondary inorganic aerosols including ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate, a semi volatile component. For this purpose, the chemistry-transport model LOTOS was extended with a(More)
  • C T Metz, M Schaap, T Van Walsum, W J Niessen
  • 2008
In this work a minimum cost path approach is adopted to extract coronary artery centerlines from CTA data. The algorithm depends on the manual definition of the start and end point of the vessel. The cost image used in the minimal cost path approach is based on a vesselness measure and a smooth window function on intensity. In the majority of the cases the(More)
  • R J Wichink Kruit, M Schaap, F J Sauter, M C Van Zanten, W A J Van Pul
  • 2012
Biogeosciences Discussions This discussion paper is/has been under review for the journal Biogeosciences (BG). Abstract A large shortcoming of current chemistry transport models for simulating the fate of ammonia in the atmosphere is the lack of a description of the bi-directional surface-atmosphere exchange. In this paper, results of an update of the dry(More)
In Europe, secondary particulate matter (PM) comprises 50% or more of PM 2.5. To reduce PM concentrations requires lowering precursor emissions. Since the 1980s, SO(2) emissions have decreased by more than 60%, while particle concentrations have decreased less. NO(x) and NH(3) emissions have decreased slightly. The role of ammonia in particle formation is(More)
With the International Energy Agency estimating that global energy demand will increase between 40 and 50 percent by 2030 (compared to 2003), scientists and policymakers are concerned about the sustainability of the current energy system and what environmental pressures might result from the development of future energy systems. EnerGEO is an ongoing FP7(More)
  • C Robles González, M Schaap, G De Leeuw, P J H Builtjes, M Van Loon
  • 2003
Aerosol optical depths (AOD) and Angström coefficients over Europe were retrieved using data from the ATSR-2 radiometer on board the ESA satellite ERS-2, for August 1997. Taking advantage of the nadir and forward view of the ATSR-2, the dual view algorithm was used over land to eliminate the influence of the surface reflection. Over 5 sea the AOD was(More)
Nitrate is an important component of fine aerosols in Europe. We present a model simulation for the year 1995 in which we account for the formation of the ammonium nitrate, a semi volatile component. For this purpose, LOTOS, a chemistry-transport model of intermediate complexity, was extended with a thermodynamic equilibrium module and 5 additional relevant(More)
[1] Feedbacks among vegetation dynamics, pedogenesis, and topographic development affect the " critical zone " —the living filter for Earth's hydrologic, biogeochemical, and rock/ sediment cycles. Assessing the importance of such feedbacks, which may be particularly pronounced in water-limited systems, remains a fundamental interdisciplinary challenge. The(More)
  • J M J Aan De Brugh, J S Henzing, M Schaap, W T Morgan, C C Van Heerwaarden, E P Weijers +2 others
  • 2012
An explanatory model study is presented on semi-volatile secondary inorganic aerosols on three clear days in May 2008 during the IMPACT campaign at the Cabauw tower in the Netherlands. A single column model in combination with the equilibrium aerosol model ISORROPIA is used. This model uses surface observations from IMPACT and calculates the gas-aerosol(More)