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Plant traits – the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs – determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data(More)
In this paper we introduce the idea of improving the performance of parametric temporal-difference (TD) learning algorithms by selectively emphasizing or de-emphasizing their updates on different time steps. In particular, we show that varying the emphasis of linear TD(λ)'s updates in a particular way causes its expected update to become stable under(More)
Automated feature discovery is a fundamental problem in machine learning. Although classical feature discovery methods do not guarantee optimal solutions in general, it has been recently noted that certain subspace learning and sparse coding problems can be solved efficiently, provided the number of features is not restricted a priori. We provide an(More)
Robust regression and classification are often thought to require non-convex loss functions that prevent scalable, global training. However, such a view neglects the possibility of reformulated training methods that can yield practically solvable alternatives. A natural way to make a loss function more robust to outliers is to truncate loss values that(More)
Training principles for unsupervised learning are often derived from motivations that appear to be independent of supervised learning. In this paper we present a simple unification of several supervised and unsupervised training principles through the concept of <i>optimal reverse prediction</i>: predict the inputs from the target labels, optimizing both(More)
Imagine that you have made the world's best poker agent You've played millions of games against other bots and won! Now you want to pit the agent against the world's best human players... Problem Poker has a lot of luck In Texas hold'em two player-limit poker: Standard deviation of winnings is 6.0 sb Required precision to distinguish pro and amateur: 0.05(More)
Emphatic algorithms are temporal-difference learning algorithms that change their effective state distribution by selectively emphasizing and de-emphasizing their updates on different time steps. Recent works by Sutton, Mahmood and White (2015), and Yu (2015) show that by varying the emphasis in a particular way, these algorithms become stable and(More)