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CONTEXT Comprehensive community-wide tobacco control programs are considered appropriate public health approaches to reduce population smoking prevalence. OBJECTIVE To examine trends in smoking behavior before, during, and after the California Tobacco Control Program. DESIGN Per capita cigarette consumption data (1983-1997) were derived from tobacco(More)
In this paper we introduce the idea of improving the performance of parametric temporal-difference (TD) learning algorithms by selectively emphasizing or de-emphasizing their updates on different time steps. In particular, we show that varying the emphasis of linear TD(λ)'s updates in a particular way causes its expected update to become stable under(More)
OBJECTIVES Several states, including California, have implemented large cigarette excise tax increases, which may encourage smokers to purchase their cigarettes in other lower taxed states, or from other lower or non-taxed sources. Such tax evasion thwarts tobacco control objectives and may cost the state substantial tax revenues. Thus, this study(More)
INTRODUCTION Asian Americans are the fastest growing immigrant group in the United States and are more likely to be light and intermittent smokers (LITS) compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). LITS experience adverse health effects related to smoking. Previous research has aggregated Asian American ethnic groups, masking important differences between(More)
One of the main obstacles to broad application of reinforcement learning methods is the parameter sensitivity of our core learning algorithms. In many large-scale applications, online computation and function approximation represent key strategies in scaling up reinforcement learning algorithms. In this setting, we have effective and reasonably well(More)
Although several interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent cell lines proliferate in response to IL-4 or insulin, the 32D line does not. Insulin and IL-4 sensitivity was restored to 32D cells by expression of IRS-1, the principal substrate of the insulin receptor. Although 32D cells possessed receptors for both factors, they lacked the IRS-1--related protein, 4PS,(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the congruence between patients' preferred style of clinical decision-making and the style they usually experienced and whether this congruence was associated with socio-economic status and/or the perceived quality of care provided by the respondent's regular doctor. METHODS Cross-sectional survey of the American public using(More)
INTRODUCTION Limited research exists examining the prevalence of intermittent (nondaily) and light daily (1-5 cigarettes/day) smoking across racial/ethnic groups in the United States using nationally representative data. These analyses would be informative in guiding targeted cessation strategies. METHODS Using logistic regression models controlling for(More)