Martha R Howell

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BACKGROUND Asymptomatic genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. To design a chlamydia-control program, we conducted a large survey of women in the U.S. military. METHODS From January 1996 through December 1997, urine samples from 13,204 new female U.S. Army recruits(More)
BACKGROUND Highly sensitive and specific DNA amplification assays are available for use on cervical and urine specimens. These new tests have the potential to identify more chlamydial infections than the commonly used enzyme immunoassay and DNA probe tests, yet they are more expensive. This study sought to assess the cost effectiveness of cell culture,(More)
BACKGROUND Screening women for Chlamydia trachomatis in family planning clinics is associated with a reduced incidence of chlamydial sequelae. However, the question of whom to screen to maintain efficient use of resources remains controversial. OBJECTIVE To assess the cost-effectiveness of chlamydial screening done according to three sets of criteria in(More)
CONTEXT Chlamydia trachomatis genitourinary infections in females can lead to serious and costly sequelae. Programs such as basic (initial entry) military training with controlled points of entry offer an opportunity to screen large cohorts of women at risk for infection. OBJECTIVE To assess the cost-effectiveness of three interventions for C. trachomatis(More)
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ligase chain reaction (LCR) were compared for the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections by testing urine specimens from 408 high school female students. After therapy, sequential urine specimens were tested to determine persistence of chlamydial DNA in urine. Baseline PCR of cervical specimens was positive in 53(More)
Non-health care-seeking male United States Army recruits were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (n=2245) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (n=884), using a urine ligase chain reaction test to determine prevalence and potential risk factors for infection. The prevalence of chlamydial infection was 5.3%. Black race, a new sex partner, a history of trichomonas, and the(More)
BACKGROUND Use of self-administered vaginal swabs (SAS) for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by nucleic acid amplification tests simplifies specimen collection and transport, especially for women in nonclinical settings. GOAL We investigated the preference and comfort level of military women for the collection of SAS, compared with urine, for the(More)
CONTEXT Adolescents are at highest risk for infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, an important preventable cause of pelvic inflammatory disease and subsequent tubal factor infertility in US women. Current guidelines for delivery of adolescent primary care services recommend yearly chlamydia screening for those adolescent females considered to be at risk. (More)
Adenovirus vaccines have controlled acute respiratory disease (ARD) in military recruits since 1971. Vaccine production, however, ceased and new facilities are required. We assessed whether reacquiring and using vaccines in naval recruits is cost-effective. Three policy options were evaluated: no vaccination, seasonal vaccination, and year-round(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the epidemiology of prevalent and incident chlamydia infection in order to assess the appropriate interval for chlamydia screening; and to identify risk factors predictive of infection and repeat infections. DESIGN Prospective longitudinal study of a consecutive sample of 3860 sexually active females aged 12-60 years tested for C.(More)