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Cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are found in the sera of many HIV-1-infected individuals, but the virologic basis of their neutralization remains poorly understood. We used knowledge of HIV-1 envelope structure to develop antigenically resurfaced glycoproteins specific for the structurally conserved site of initial CD4 receptor binding. These(More)
Many immune correlates of CD8(+) T-cell-mediated control of HIV replication, including polyfunctionality, proliferative ability, and inhibitory receptor expression, have been discovered. However, no functional correlates using ex vivo cells have been identified with the known ability to cause the direct elimination of HIV-infected cells. We have recently(More)
Squashing is a lossy data compression technique that preserves statistical information. Speciically, squashing compresses a massive dataset to a much smaller one so that outputs from statistical analyses carried out on the smaller (squashed) dataset reproduce outputs from the same statistical analyses carried out on the original dataset. Likelihood-based(More)
We present CARTscans, a graphical tool that displays predicted values across a four-dimensional subspace. We show how these plots are useful for understanding the structure and relationships between variables in a wide variety of models, including (but not limited to) regression trees, ensembles of trees, and linear regressions with varying degrees of(More)
Serum characterization and antibody isolation are transforming our understanding of the humoral immune response to viral infection. Here, we show that epitope specificities of HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies in serum can be elucidated from the serum pattern of neutralization against a diverse panel of HIV-1 isolates. We determined "neutralization(More)
Inflammation in HIV infection is predictive of non-AIDS morbidity and death, higher set point plasma virus load and virus acquisition; thus, therapeutic agents are in development to reduce its causes and consequences. However, inflammation may simultaneously confer both detrimental and beneficial effects. This dichotomy is particularly applicable to type I(More)
BACKGROUND Induction of HIV-1-specific T-cell responses relevant to diverse subtypes is a major goal of HIV vaccine development. Prime-boost regimens using heterologous gene-based vaccine vectors have induced potent, polyfunctional T cell responses in preclinical studies. METHODS The first opportunity to evaluate the immunogenicity of DNA priming followed(More)
Despite the pressing need for an AIDS vaccine, the determinants of protective immunity to HIV remain concealed within the complexity of adaptive immune responses. We dissected immunodominant virus-specific CD8(+) T cell populations in Mamu-A*01(+) rhesus macaques with primary SIV infection to elucidate the hallmarks of effective immunity at the level of(More)
Efforts to develop a broadly protective vaccine against the highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) H5N1 virus have focused on highly conserved influenza gene products. The viral nucleoprotein (NP) and ion channel matrix protein (M2) are highly conserved among different strains and various influenza A subtypes. Here, we investigate the relative efficacy(More)
It is widely appreciated that effective human vaccines directed against viral pathogens elicit neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). The passive transfer of anti-HIV-1 NAbs conferring sterilizing immunity to macaques has been used to determine the plasma neutralization titers, which must be present at the time of exposure, to prevent acquisition of SIV/HIV(More)