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Many immune correlates of CD8(+) T-cell-mediated control of HIV replication, including polyfunctionality, proliferative ability, and inhibitory receptor expression, have been discovered. However, no functional correlates using ex vivo cells have been identified with the known ability to cause the direct elimination of HIV-infected cells. We have recently(More)
Squashing is a lossy data compression technique that preserves statistical information. Speciically, squashing compresses a massive dataset to a much smaller one so that outputs from statistical analyses carried out on the smaller (squashed) dataset reproduce outputs from the same statistical analyses carried out on the original dataset. Likelihood-based(More)
Efforts to develop a broadly protective vaccine against the highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) H5N1 virus have focused on highly conserved influenza gene products. The viral nucleoprotein (NP) and ion channel matrix protein (M2) are highly conserved among different strains and various influenza A subtypes. Here, we investigate the relative efficacy(More)
BACKGROUND Sustained outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in avian species increase the risk of reassortment and adaptation to humans. The ability to contain its spread in chickens would reduce this threat and help maintain the capacity for egg-based vaccine production. While vaccines offer the potential to control avian disease, a(More)
BACKGROUND The Step trial raised the possibility that uncircumcised men with pre-existing Ad5 neutralizing antibodies carried an increased risk of HIV infection after vaccination. Thus, understanding Ad seropositivity in humans is important to the development of an AIDS vaccine. Here, we analyze the impact of different Ad5-specific neutralizing antibodies(More)
Developing predictive animal models to assess how candidate vaccines and infection influence the ontogenies of Envelope (Env)-specific antibodies is critical for the development of an HIV vaccine. Here we use two nonhuman primate models to compare the roles of antigen persistence, diversity and innate immunity. We perform longitudinal analyses of HIV(More)
Experimental pipeline for B cell deep sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Antigen specific B cells were sorted based on binding to a gp140 or gp120 probe. mRNA was extracted and reverse transcribed to cDNA for Ig H C amplification. Unique barcodes are incorporated at the 3' end of amplicons to differentiate between animals and time points. Products were(More)
BACKGROUND Computational methods to predict transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) based on exhaustive algorithms are guaranteed to find the best patterns but are often limited to short ones or impose some constraints on the pattern type. Many patterns for binding sites in prokaryotic species are not well characterized but are known to be large, between(More)
BACKGROUND Three phase 2b, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized efficacy trials have tested recombinant Adenovirus serotype-5 (rAd5)-vector preventive HIV-1 vaccines: MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag/pol/nef in Step and Phambili, and DNA/rAd5 HIV-1 env/gag/pol in HVTN505. Due to efficacy futility observed at the first interim analysis in Step and HVTN505,(More)