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Two mutations in the alpha-synuclein gene (A30P and A53T) have been linked to autosomal dominant early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Both mutations promote the formation of transient protofibrils (prefibrillar oligomers), suggesting that protofibrils are linked to cytotoxicity. In this work, the effect of these mutations on the structure of(More)
Neurodegenerative disorders of aging are characterized by the intraneuronal accumulation of ubiquitin conjugates into tangles and inclusions. Ubiquitin conjugates are degraded by cellular particles known as proteasomes. We have previously shown that amyloid beta protein (Abeta) inhibits proteasomal activity and thereby blocks ubiquitin conjugate(More)
Although APP mutations associated with inherited forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are relatively rare, detailed studies of these mutations may prove critical for gaining important insights into the mechanism(s) and etiology of AD. Here, we present a detailed biophysical characterization of the structural properties of protofibrils formed by the Arctic(More)
Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) mediate bacterial protein translocation into eukaryotic cells, a process essential for virulence of many Gram-negative pathogens. They are composed of a cytoplasmic secretion machinery and a base bridging both bacterial membranes into which a hollow, external needle is embedded. When isolated, the latter two parts are(More)
The long-tail fibers (LTFs) form part of bacteriophage T4's apparatus for host cell recognition and infection, being responsible for its initial attachment to susceptible bacteria. The LTF has two parts, each approximately 70 to 75 nm long; gp34 (140 kDa) forms the proximal half-fiber, while the distal half-fiber is composed of gp37 (109 kDa), gp36(23 kDa)(More)
Paired helical filaments (PHF) are abnormal, approximately 20-25-nm wide periodically twisted filaments, which accumulate in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain and other neurodegenerative disorders, including corticobasal degeneration (CBD). PHF are primarily composed of highly phosphorylated tau protein. However, both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated(More)
GENERAL INFORMATION NANOVAN™ is a negative stain for electron microscopy specially tailored for use with NANOGOLD™ antibody conjugates, not available elsewhere. It is based on vanadium, which has a lower atomic number (23) than other elements commonly used as negative stain reagents such as uranium (92), tungsten (74) or lead (82). NANOVAN™ is recommended(More)
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