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The mass of the nucleocapsid of the alphavirus Sindbis was determined by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The nucleocapsid was found to have an average mass of 10.54 x 10(6) Da with the largest percentage of particles showing a mass of 10.7 to 10.9 x 10(6) Da. These data predict that the nucleocapsid contains 240 copies of protein and is a T = 4(More)
Two mutations in the alpha-synuclein gene (A30P and A53T) have been linked to autosomal dominant early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Both mutations promote the formation of transient protofibrils (prefibrillar oligomers), suggesting that protofibrils are linked to cytotoxicity. In this work, the effect of these mutations on the structure of(More)
Nuclear import of DNA is a central event in genetic transformation of plant cells by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Agrobacterium elicits tumors on plant hosts by transporting a single-stranded (ss) copy of the bacterial transferred DNA (T-DNA) from its Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmid into the plant cell nucleus. Presumably, the process of T-DNA nuclear import is(More)
Electron microscopy, image processing and computational sequence analysis were used to investigate the structure of the short tail-fiber of bacteriophage T4. This molecule, an oligomer of gp12, is an adhesin that binds the virion irreversibly to the bacterial surface. Short tail-fibers were isolated from mutant-infected cells in which gp12 is synthesized(More)
The internal structural protein of retroviruses, Gag, comprises most of the mass of the virion, and Gag itself can give rise to virus-like particles when expressed in appropriate cells. Previously the stoichiometry of Gag in virions was inferred from indirect measurements carried out 2 decades ago. We now have directly determined the masses of individual(More)
The infectious component of hepatitis B (HB) virus (HBV), the Dane particle, has a diameter of approximately 44 nm and consists of a double-layered capsid particle enclosing a circular, incomplete double-stranded DNA genome. The outer capsid layer is formed from the HB surface antigen (HBsAg) and lipid, whereas the inner layer is formed from the HB core Ag(More)
Bordetella pertussis establishes infection by attaching to epithelial cells of the respiratory tract. One of its adhesins is filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), a 500-A-long secreted protein that is rich in beta-structure and contains two regions, R1 and R2, of tandem 19-residue repeats. Two models have been proposed in which the central shaft is (i) a(More)
Neurodegenerative disorders of aging are characterized by the intraneuronal accumulation of ubiquitin conjugates into tangles and inclusions. Ubiquitin conjugates are degraded by cellular particles known as proteasomes. We have previously shown that amyloid beta protein (Abeta) inhibits proteasomal activity and thereby blocks ubiquitin conjugate(More)
Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) mediate bacterial protein translocation into eukaryotic cells, a process essential for virulence of many Gram-negative pathogens. They are composed of a cytoplasmic secretion machinery and a base that bridges both bacterial membranes, into which a hollow, external needle is embedded. When isolated, the latter two parts are(More)
The major structural components of HIV-1 are encoded as a single polyprotein, Gag, which is sufficient for virus particle assembly. Initially, Gag forms an approximately spherical shell underlying the membrane of the immature particle. After proteolytic maturation of Gag, the capsid (CA) domain of Gag reforms into a conical shell enclosing the RNA genome.(More)