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The hemagglutinin (HA) of a recent swine influenza virus, A/Sw/IN/1726/88 (H1N1), was shown previously to have four antigenic sites, as determined from analysis of monoclonal antibody (MAb)-selected escape mutants. To define the HA mutations related to these antigenic sites, we cloned and sequenced the HA genes amplified by polymerase chain reaction of(More)
Inactivated alum-adjuvanted conventional equine influenza virus vaccines are of poor efficacy and offer limited short-term protection against infection. In sharp contrast, natural infection with equine influenza virus confers long-term protective immunity. In order to identify the protective immune responses to equine influenza virus, the influenza(More)
An H5N1 avian influenza A virus was transmitted to humans in Hong Kong in 1997. Although the virus causes systemic infection and is highly lethal in chickens because of the susceptibility of the hemagglutinin to furin and PC6 proteases, it is not known whether it also causes systemic infection in humans. The clinical outcomes of infection in Hong Kong(More)
Influenza A viruses possess both hemagglutinin (HA), which is responsible for binding to the terminal sialic acid of sialyloligosaccharides on the cell surface, and neuraminidase (NA), which contains sialidase activity that removes sialic acid from sialyloligosaccharides. Interplay between HA receptor-binding and NA receptor-destroying sialidase activity(More)
Hemagglutinins (HA) of H1N1 swine influenza viruses isolated in the United States have remained antigenically and genetically conserved for many years. In contrast to such conservation, the HA of A/Swine/Nebraska/1/92 (Sw/Neb) could readily be distinguished from those of contemporary porcine viruses. Twenty-eight amino acid mutations differentiated the HA(More)
BACKGROUND Gene transfer to skin has many potential applications but lacks a safe, practical delivery method. This report presents a new technique, microseeding, for in vivo gene transfer to skin and wounds and for DNA-mediated vaccination. The plasmid DNA solution was delivered directly to the target cells of the skin by a set of oscillating solid(More)
Equine influenza virus infection remains one of the most important infectious diseases of the horse, yet current vaccines offer only limited protection. The equine immune response to natural influenza virus infection results in long-term protective immunity, and is characterized by mucosal IgA and serum IgGa and IgGb antibody responses. DNA vaccination(More)
We have previously demonstrated that hemagglutinin (HA) gene vaccination and influenza virus infection generate protective antibody responses in equids. However, these antibody responses differ substantially in that particle mediated DNA vaccination does not induce an immunoglobulin A (IgA) response. A study was performed to investigate the regional(More)
Influenza A viruses possess two virion surface proteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). The HA binds to sialyloligosaccharide viral receptors, while the NA removes sialic acids from the host cell and viral sialyloligosaccarides. Alterations of the HA occur during adaptation of influenza viruses to new host species, as in the 1957 and 1968(More)