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Ammonia metabolism is important in multiple aspects of gastrointestinal physiology, but the mechanisms of ammonia transport in the gastrointestinal tract remain incompletely defined. The present study examines expression of the ammonia transporter family members Rh B glycoprotein (RhBG) and Rh C glycoprotein (RhCG) in the mouse gastrointestinal tract.(More)
Controversy exists regarding the potential regenerative influences of incretin therapy on pancreatic β-cells versus possible adverse pancreatic proliferative effects. Examination of pancreata from age-matched organ donors with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) treated by incretin therapy (n = 8) or other therapy (n = 12) and nondiabetic control subjects (n =(More)
Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is protective in tissue injury in models of allograft rejection and vascular inflammation through either prevention of oxidative damage or via immunomodulatory effects. To examine the specific role of HO-1 in modulating the immune response, we examined the differences in immune phenotype between HO-1 knockout (HO-1(-/-))(More)
Scalable production of rAAV vectors remains a major obstacle to the clinical application of this prototypical gene therapy vector. A recently developed baculovirus-based production protocol (M. Urabe et al., 2002, Hum. Gene Ther. 13, 1935-1943) found limited applications due to the system's design. Here we report a detailed analysis of the stability of the(More)
Islet transplantation offers a potential therapy to restore glucose homeostasis in type 1 diabetes patients. A method to image transplanted islets noninvasively and repeatedly would greatly assist studies of islet transplantation. Using recombinant adenovirus, we show that isolated rodent and human islets can be genetically engineered to express luciferase(More)
The pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy remains poorly defined, and animal models that represent the human disease have been lacking. It was demonstrated recently that the severe endothelial dysfunction that accompanies a diabetic state may cause an uncoupling of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-endothelial nitric oxide (eNO) axis, resulting(More)
Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors offer promise for the gene therapy of α(1)-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. In our prior trial, an rAAV vector expressing human AAT (rAAV1-CB-hAAT) provided sustained, vector-derived AAT expression for >1 year. In the current phase 2 clinical trial, this same vector, produced by a herpes simplex virus(More)
Reply: There is no evidence that guidelines or training improve EMR note quality. In the absence of evidence, only expert opinion remains. It is my opinion as a medical educator , experienced if not expert, that training has minimal lasting impact. Mark Twain wrote, " I didn't have time to write a short letter, so I wrote a long one instead. " 1 With EMR(More)
Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic cytokine with well known antiinflammatory, immunosuppressive, and immunostimulatory properties. Chronic allograft rejection, characterized by vascular neointimal proliferation, is a major cause of organ transplant loss, particularly in heart and kidney transplant recipients. In a Dark Agouti to Lewis rat model of(More)