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To the Editor: During a workshop concerning the histopathological characteristics of insulitis in human type 1 diabetes (fifth annual meeting of the JDRF Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors with Diabetes [nPOD], 10 February 2013, Jacksonville, FL, USA), a consensus opinion was reached on the criteria necessary for the diagnosis of insulitis, and a(More)
Colon cancer incidence and mortality rates are lower in females compared with males, and numerous epidemiological studies suggest that estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) reduces cancer risk in postmenopausal women. Two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERalpha and ERbeta, mediate genomic effects in target cells. The aim of this study was to determine the(More)
The pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy remains poorly defined, and animal models that represent the human disease have been lacking. It was demonstrated recently that the severe endothelial dysfunction that accompanies a diabetic state may cause an uncoupling of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-endothelial nitric oxide (eNO) axis, resulting(More)
Controversy exists regarding the potential regenerative influences of incretin therapy on pancreatic β-cells versus possible adverse pancreatic proliferative effects. Examination of pancreata from age-matched organ donors with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) treated by incretin therapy (n = 8) or other therapy (n = 12) and nondiabetic control subjects (n =(More)
The development of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice provides for their use as a model of human type 1 diabetes. To test the feasibility of muscle-directed gene therapy to prevent type 1 diabetes, we developed recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors containing murine cDNAs for immunomodulatory cytokines IL-4 or IL-10.(More)
Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is protective in tissue injury in models of allograft rejection and vascular inflammation through either prevention of oxidative damage or via immunomodulatory effects. To examine the specific role of HO-1 in modulating the immune response, we examined the differences in immune phenotype between HO-1 knockout (HO-1(-/-))(More)
Ammonia metabolism is important in multiple aspects of gastrointestinal physiology, but the mechanisms of ammonia transport in the gastrointestinal tract remain incompletely defined. The present study examines expression of the ammonia transporter family members Rh B glycoprotein (RhBG) and Rh C glycoprotein (RhCG) in the mouse gastrointestinal tract.(More)
BACKGROUND The Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors with Diabetes (nPOD) was established to recover and characterize pancreata and related organs from cadaveric organ donors with various risk levels for type 1 diabetes (T1D). These biospecimens are available to investigators for collaborative studies aimed at addressing questions related to T1D natural(More)
This study compared expression of two estrogen receptor (ER alpha and ER beta) genes in the rat upper gastrointestinal tract and the effects of 17 beta-estradiol administration on gastric trefoil factor family (TFF) mRNA steady-state levels in ovariectomized rats. Estrogen receptor alpha and beta cDNA fragments from fundic mucosa were cloned by reverse(More)
Reply: There is no evidence that guidelines or training improve EMR note quality. In the absence of evidence, only expert opinion remains. It is my opinion as a medical educator , experienced if not expert, that training has minimal lasting impact. Mark Twain wrote, " I didn't have time to write a short letter, so I wrote a long one instead. " 1 With EMR(More)