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Controversy exists regarding the potential regenerative influences of incretin therapy on pancreatic β-cells versus possible adverse pancreatic proliferative effects. Examination of pancreata from age-matched organ donors with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) treated by incretin therapy (n = 8) or other therapy (n = 12) and nondiabetic control subjects (n =(More)
PURPOSE Dysfunction of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. This study was undertaken to determine the role of eNOS in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR), by investigating the functional consequences of its deficiency in the diabetic state. METHODS Diabetes was(More)
Colon cancer incidence and mortality rates are lower in females compared with males, and numerous epidemiological studies suggest that estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) reduces cancer risk in postmenopausal women. Two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERalpha and ERbeta, mediate genomic effects in target cells. The aim of this study was to determine the(More)
Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors offer promise for the gene therapy of α(1)-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. In our prior trial, an rAAV vector expressing human AAT (rAAV1-CB-hAAT) provided sustained, vector-derived AAT expression for >1 year. In the current phase 2 clinical trial, this same vector, produced by a herpes simplex virus(More)
Ammonia metabolism is important in multiple aspects of gastrointestinal physiology, but the mechanisms of ammonia transport in the gastrointestinal tract remain incompletely defined. The present study examines expression of the ammonia transporter family members Rh B glycoprotein (RhBG) and Rh C glycoprotein (RhCG) in the mouse gastrointestinal tract.(More)
Peptide YY(3-36) is a satiation hormone released postprandially into the bloodstream from L-endocrine cells in the gut epithelia. In the current report, we demonstrate PYY(3-36) is also present in murine as well as in human saliva. In mice, salivary PYY(3-36) derives from plasma and is also synthesized in the taste cells in taste buds of the tongue.(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is considered a disorder whose pathogenesis is autoimmune in origin, a notion drawn in large part from studies of human pancreata performed as far back as the 1960s. While studies of the genetics, epidemiology, and peripheral immunity in T1D have been subject to widespread analysis over the ensuing decades, efforts to understand the(More)
OBJECTIVE The autoimmune destruction of beta-cells in type 1 diabetes results in a loss of insulin production and glucose homeostasis. As such, an immense interest exists for the development of therapies capable of attenuating this destructive process through restoration of proper immune recognition. Therefore, we investigated the ability of the(More)
OBJECTIVE Antilymphocyte serum can reverse overt type 1 diabetes in NOD mice; yet, the therapeutic parameters and immunological mechanisms underlying the ability for this agent to modulate autoimmune responses against beta-cells are unclear, forming the rationale for this investigation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A form of antilymphocyte serum, rabbit(More)
Reply: There is no evidence that guidelines or training improve EMR note quality. In the absence of evidence, only expert opinion remains. It is my opinion as a medical educator , experienced if not expert, that training has minimal lasting impact. Mark Twain wrote, " I didn't have time to write a short letter, so I wrote a long one instead. " 1 With EMR(More)