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The quantification of respiratory variability may provide insight into the integrative control of breathing. To test the hypothesis that sleep and/or increased chemical drive modifies respiratory variability, six male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented with diaphragm electromyographic (EMG) electrodes and exposed to 0, 2.5, and 5.0% CO2 with a(More)
Spontaneous contractions of the urinary bladder (SBCs) and experimental elevations of carotid sinus pressure (CSP) have been shown to result in respiratory inhibition with preferential reduction in hypoglossal (HG) nerve activity as compared with that of phrenic nerve discharge. We assessed the interaction between these respiratory inhibitory stimuli in(More)
The hypothesis that respiratory modulation due to upper airway (UA) pressure and flow is dependent on stimulus modality and respiratory phase-specific activation was assessed in anesthetized, tracheotomized, spontaneously breathing piglets. Negative pressure and flow applied to the isolated UA at room or body temperature during inspiration only enhanced(More)
The hypothesis that upper airway (UA) pressure and flow modulate respiratory muscle activity in a respiratory phase-specific fashion was assessed in anesthetized, tracheotomized, spontaneously breathing piglets. We generated negative pressure and inspiratory flow in phase with tracheal inspiration or positive pressure and expiratory flow in phase with(More)
Imperceptible levels of proportional assist ventilation applied throughout inspiration reduced inspiratory time (TI) in awake humans. More recently, the reduction in TI was associated with flow assist, but flow assist also reaches a maximum value early during inspiration. To test the separate effects of flow assist and timing of assist, we applied a(More)
Spontaneous contractions of the urinary bladder (SBCs) have been shown to decrease the frequency and depth of respiration in anesthetized or unanesthetized, decerebrate cats. The respiratory responses to bladder voiding reflexes in the awake state have not been previously addressed. Because a chronic rat model for the study of bladder function has been(More)
Every year, thousands of Americans suffer from pathological and traumatic events that result in loss of dexterity and strength of the hand. Although many supportive devices have been designed to restore functional hand movement, most are very complex and expensive. The goal of this project was to design and implement a cost-effective, electrically powered(More)
Since stimuli from abdominal or pelvic viscera can affect respiratory muscle function, we hypothesized that mechanical stimulation of the gallbladder would result in inhibition of motor activity to the diaphragm and to upper airway muscles. We studied 12 decerebrate, vagotomized, paralyzed, artificially ventilated cats and recorded hypoglossal (HG) and(More)
We investigated the role of V(T) and V(T)/T(I) modulation of breathing in awake human subjects. We applied a PRBS of volume (incrementing ramp) or flow (decrementing wave) assist at levels below the perceptual threshold in order to stimulate respiratory feedback. We modeled the PRBS data with linear difference equations to obtain impulse-response profiles(More)
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