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This paper examines the problem of risk mitigation in virtual organizations (VO's). We begin by discussing risk propensity in virtual organizations, and draw on a variety of research to suggest processes important in obtaining high levels of reliable performance in VO's. From this research we identify four processes we think are important: organizational(More)
The state of Washington operates the largest passenger vessel ferry system in the United States. In part due to the introduction of high-speed ferries, the state of Washington established an independent blue-ribbon panel to assess the adequacy of requirements for passenger and crew safety aboard the Washington state ferries. On July 9, 1998, the Blue Ribbon(More)
After the grounding of the Exxon Valdez and its subsequent oil spill, all parties with interests in Prince William Sound (PWS) were eager to prevent another major pollution event. While they implemented several measures to reduce the risk of an oil spill, the stakeholders disagreed about the effectiveness of these measures and the potential effectiveness of(More)
Applications of intelligent software systems are proliferating. As these systems proliferate, understanding and measuring their complexity becomes vital, especially in safety-critical environments. This paper proposes a model assessing the impacts of complexity for a particular type of intelligent software system, embedded intelligent real-time systems(More)
—Risk is inherent in distributed, large-scale systems. This paper explores the challenges of risk modeling in such systems , and suggests a risk modeling approach that is responsive to the requirements of complex, distributed, large-scale systems. An example of the use of the approach in the marine transportation system is given. The paper concludes with a(More)