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This paper examines the problem of risk mitigation in virtual organizations (VO's). We begin by discussing risk propensity in virtual organizations, and draw on a variety of research to suggest processes important in obtaining high levels of reliable performance in VO's. From this research we identify four processes we think are important: organizational(More)
After the grounding of the Exxon Valdez and its subsequent oil spill, all parties with interests in Prince William Sound (PWS) were eager to prevent another major pollution event. While they implemented several measures to reduce the risk of an oil spill, the stakeholders disagreed about the effectiveness of these measures and the potential effectiveness of(More)
Applications of intelligent software systems are proliferating. As these systems proliferate, understanding and measuring their complexity becomes vital, especially in safety-critical environments. This paper proposes a model assessing the impacts of complexity for a particular type of intelligent software system, embedded intelligent real-time systems(More)
—Risk is inherent in distributed, large-scale systems. This paper explores the challenges of risk modeling in such systems , and suggests a risk modeling approach that is responsive to the requirements of complex, distributed, large-scale systems. An example of the use of the approach in the marine transportation system is given. The paper concludes with a(More)
The importance of the user interface increases particularly in safety-critical or mission-critical systems where the user has time limitations within which to make correct, accurate, and timely decisions. User interfaces for these type of systems should be well-designed, easy to understand and easy to use in order to be accepted by expert users and to(More)