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This paper examines the problem of risk mitigation in virtual organizations (VO's). We begin by discussing risk propensity in virtual organizations, and draw on a variety of research to suggest processes important in obtaining high levels of reliable performance in VO's. From this research we identify four processes we think are important: organizational(More)
Topical treatment of gastric mucosa with capsaicin (cap) increases gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) and protects the mucosa from injury by acidified bile salts. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that this hyperemia related "cytoprotection" is mediated by nitric oxide. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and the glandular stomach(More)
A hamster immunization challenge assay described in the accompanying paper (M. F. Barile, D. K. F. Chandler, H. Yoshida, M. W. Grabowski, R. Harasawa, and S. Razin, Infect. Immun. 56:2443-2449, 1988) was used to examine protection against Mycoplasma pneumoniae disease by passive immunization and to evaluate the protective potency of a Formalin-inactivated(More)
Mycoplasma hominis was isolated in pure culture from septic synovial aspirates from an individual (patient A) during 16 different bouts of exacerbation over a 70-month period of observation. Two isolates, 10(7) and also 10(6) color-changing units (CCU) of the 1620 isolate and 5 x 10(4) CCU of the 1628 isolate, caused inflammation in chimpanzees inoculated(More)
After the grounding of the Exxon Valdez and its subsequent oil spill, all parties with interests in Prince William Sound (PWS) were eager to prevent another major pollution event. While they implemented several measures to reduce the risk of an oil spill, the stakeholders disagreed about the effectiveness of these measures and the potential effectiveness of(More)
Crude extracts of triple-cloned, purified cultures of 22 species of Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma were examined for expression of 21 isozyme systems routinely used to type mammalian cells. Nine previously described enzymes (purine nucleoside phosphorylase, adenylate kinase, dipeptidase, esterase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose phosphate(More)
A microtiter metabolic inhibition test was used to determine the effect of filipin and lucensomycin on the growth of representative species of Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma. The cholesterol-requiring species tested were found to be very susceptible to the two antibiotics, whereas the cholesterol nonrequiring species were not. The utilization of this method(More)
Risk is inherent in distributed, large-scale systems. This paper explores the challenges of risk modeling in such systems, and suggests a risk modeling approach that is responsive to the requirements of complex, distributed, large-scale systems. An example of the use of the approach in the marine transportation system is given. The paper concludes with a(More)