Martha C. Nowycky

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1. Calcium currents in cultured dorsal root ganglion (d.r.g.) cells were studied with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Using experimental conditions that suppressed Na+ and K+ currents, and 3-10 mM-external Ca2+ or Ba2+, we distinguished three distinct types of calcium currents (L, T and N) on the basis of voltage-dependent kinetics and pharmacology.(More)
How many types of calcium channels exist in neurones? This question is fundamental to understanding how calcium entry contributes to diverse neuronal functions such as transmitter release, neurite extension, spike initiation and rhythmic firing. There is considerable evidence for the presence of more than one type of Ca conductance in neurones and other(More)
1. T-, and L-type Ca2+ channels were studied in cell-attached patch recordings from the cell bodies of chick dorsal root ganglion neurones. All experiments were performed with isotonic BaCl2 (110 mM) in the recording pipette and with isotonic potassium aspartate in the bathing solution to zero the cell membrane potential. 2. L-type channels are(More)
A large-conductance calcium channel in chicken dorsal root ganglion neurons was studied with patch-clamp recordings of unitary currents. In addition to the conventional pattern of Ca-channel gating previously described in neurons ("mode 1"), we observed a different form of gating behavior ("mode 2"). Unlike the brief (approximately equal to 1 ms) openings(More)
The properties of the Ca2+ channels mediating transmitter release in vertebrate neurons have not yet been described with voltage-clamp techniques. Several types of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels are known to exist on neuronal somata, but the small size and inaccessibility of most vertebrate nerve endings have precluded direct characterization of the(More)
Fixed and diffusible calcium (Ca) buffers shape the spatial and temporal distribution of free Ca following Ca entry through voltage-gated ion channels. This modeling study explores intracellular Ca levels achieved near the membrane and in deeper locations following typical Ca currents obtained with patch clamp experiments. Ca ion diffusion sets an upper(More)
The release of neurohormone is widely thought to be exocytotic, involving Ca2(+)-dependent fusion of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane. The inaccessibility of most nerve ending has so far hampered direct time-resolved measurements of neuronal exocytosis in response to brief depolarization. By using 'whole-terminal' patch-clamp and circuit-analysis(More)
1. Endocytosis following exocytosis evoked by single step depolarizations was examined in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells using high resolution capacitance measurements in perforated-patch voltage clamp recordings. 2. Endocytosis was detected as a smooth exponential decline in membrane capacitance to either the pre-stimulus level ('compensatory retrieval')(More)
Cardiac calcium channel activity is markedly increased by beta-adrenergic agents or calcium agonists such as Bay K 8644. The molecular mechanisms underlying these important modulatory effects have been studied with patch clamp techniques by several groups. This paper presents new experiments and reviews published evidence from fluctuation analysis of whole(More)
Adrenergic modulation of calcium channels profoundly influences cardiac function, and has served as a prime example of neurohormonal regulation of voltage-gated ion channels. Channel modulation and increased Ca influx are mediated by elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP and protein phosphorylation. The molecular mechanism of the augmented membrane Ca(More)