Marta Ugarte

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Experimental evidence exists to suggest that zinc can have positive and negative effects on the physiology of cells depending on the "local" concentration, localisation (extracellular vs. intracellular) and/or state (bound vs. free). The retina contains particularly high amounts of zinc suggesting a pivotal role in the tissue. There is also suggestive(More)
Management of glaucoma is directed at the control of intraocular pressure (IOP), yet it is recognized now that increased IOP isjust an important risk factor in glaucoma. Therapy that prevents the death of ganglion cells is the main goal of treatment, but an understanding of the causes of ganglion cell death and precisely how it occurs remains speculative.(More)
1. Neurotrophins are molecules that regulate the survival, development and maintenance of specific functions in different populations of nerve cells. 2. In the present work, we studied the localization, at the cellular level, of the different neurotrophins and their receptors within the rat retina in control and after ischemia-reperfusion of the retina. We(More)
The present results show that topically applied Betoptic(R)(0.5% betaxolol) to the rabbit or rat eye reaches the retina and can counteract the detrimental effects caused by ischaemia/reperfusion or N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA)-induced insults to the retina. Betaxolol is a beta(1)-adrenergic blocker but its neuroprotective action is generally thought to be(More)
The essential trace metals iron, zinc, and copper play important roles both in retinal physiology and disease. They are involved in various retinal functions such as phototransduction, the visual cycle, and the process of neurotransmission, being tightly bound to proteins and other molecules to regulate their structure and/or function or as unbound free(More)
The effect of an intravitreal injection of NMDA on the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in retinal ganglion cells was investigated in rats. Forty-eight hours after intravitreal injection of NMDA retinal ganglion cell BDNF immunoreactivity was practically obliterated, as was the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity(More)
Zinc levels are high in ocular tissues and the distribution is non-uniform. Zinc is particularly concentrated in the corneal epithelium and posterior stroma. Zinc is the most abundant trace metal in the retina. Bound-zinc is particularly located in the inner nuclear layer, (e.g. forming part of the structure of zinc finger transcription factors), while(More)
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to quantify the total amount of trace elements in retina from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6). Concentration of trace elements within individual retinal areas in frozen sections of the fellow eye was established with the use of two methodologies: (1) particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE)(More)