Marta Torroba

Learn More
Seasonal variation, affecting the structure and function of the ectotherm immune system, is an excellent 'natural' model of the influence of neuroendocrine rhythms on immunity. In this review, Agustín Zapata, Alberto Varas and Marta Torroba examine the correlations between seasonal changes and circulating steroid levels, and investigate the possibility of a(More)
OBJECTIVE Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has demonstrated beneficial effects in several murine models of immune-mediated inflammation by inhibiting both the inflammatory and the autoimmune components of the disease. We investigate its potential to modulate the release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by human synovial cells from patients(More)
The route of immunization, dose and nature of antigens are relevant for induction of specific immune responses but they are particularly influenced by the state of immunomaturation of fish. It is difficult, however, to determine when the fish immune system has matured and, accordingly, when the fry can be successfully vaccinated. To establish some general(More)
In higher vertebrates, mainly in mammals, a role for the non-lymphoid components of lymphoid organs in governing the maturation and functioning of immune system has been largely demonstrated. In contrast, such a role in the evolution of the vertebrate immune system has only been evidenced indirectly. In the present review we summarize histophysiological(More)
An in vitro assay was used to study the involvement of gill cells in the trapping and processing of particulate antigens. Gills were routinely processed for light microscopy after being placed in medium containing either Yersinia ruckeri O-antigen-labelled fluorescent beads, unlabelled fluorescent beads, Y, ruckeri O-antigen or formalin-killed Y. ruckeri,(More)
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a potent anti-inflammatory agent with immunoregulatory properties, skewing the immune response to a Th2 pattern of cytokine production. Here, we studied the effect of treatment with VIP in the development of diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, an animal model of type 1 diabetes. Mice treated with VIP from 4 weeks(More)
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and -4 mediate signals from a great variety of bacterial gut products, giving the host a panel of microbe-recognizing receptors. Under homeostatic conditions, TLRs act as protective receptors of the intestinal epithelium. When homeostasis is disrupted in diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, TLR2 and -4 are deregulated.(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which recognize numerous molecules collectively named pathogen-associated molecular patterns, with an essential role in inflammatory conditions and connecting innate and acquired immune responses. Moreover, a new function of TLRs in the intestinal mucosa has been described.(More)
We have summarized current knowledge on the aging of the immune system in three vertebrate groups: fish, amphibians and birds. Available data are few due to difficulties in studying ageing in natural populations and in accurately determining age. In all vertebrates, the most obvious evidence of the senescence of lymphoid tissue is the involution of thymus,(More)
Owing to the possible role of sex steroids in the immune-neuroendocrine interactions found in lower vertebrates, we attempted to delineate the effect of testosterone propionate on peripheral blood (PB) and the lymphoid organs of the turtle Mauremys caspica. A single intraperitoneal injection of 200 micrograms/g body weight produced thymic involution and(More)