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Breaking the Conflict Trap: Civil War and Development Policy
Most wars are now civil wars. Even though international wars attract enormous global attention, they have become infrequent and brief. Civil wars usually attract less attention, but they have becomeExpand
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Ethnic Polarization, Potential Conflict, and Civil Wars
This paper analyzes the relationship between ethnic fractionalization, polarization, and conflict. In recent years many authors have found empirical evidence that ethnic fractionalization has aExpand
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Ethnic diversity and economic development
Abstract This paper analyzes the role that different indices and dimensions of ethnicity play in the process of economic development. Firstly, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages ofExpand
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Ethnicity, Political Systems, and Civil Wars
The effect of ethnic division on civil war and the role of political systems in preventing these conflicts are analyzed, using the importance of religious polarization and animist diversity toExpand
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The Curse of Aid
Foreign aid provides a windfall of resources to recipient countries and may result in the same rent seeking behavior as documented in the 'curse of natural resources' literature. In this paper theExpand
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Do Democracies Select More Educated Leaders?
This paper uses a unique data set on over 1,400 world leaders between 1848 and 2004 to investigate differences in educational qualifications between leaders who are selected in democracies andExpand
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The Legacy of Historical Conflict: Evidence from Africa
This article exploits variation between and within countries to examine the legacy of recorded conflicts in Africa in the precolonial period between 1400 and 1700. There are three main findings.Expand
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Why Ethnic Fractionalization? Polarization, Ethnic Conflict and Growth
This paper ia an attempt to clarify the relationship between fractionalization, polarization and conflict. The literature on the measurement of ethnic diversity has taken as given that the properExpand
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Aid with multiple personalities
The existing research on foreign aid offers inconclusive evidence on the factors that make aid effective. In this paper, the authors test the hypothesis that the success of foreign aid depends on theExpand
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Does Foreign Aid Help?
Recently, Sachs et al. (2004) have argued in favor of a massive increase in foreign aid to Africa in order to escape from a poverty trap. They propose to increase the capital stock in one step,Expand
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