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Macroautophagy is a lysosomal degradative pathway essential for neuron survival. Here, we show that macroautophagy requires the Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related protein presenilin-1 (PS1). In PS1 null blastocysts, neurons from mice hypomorphic for PS1 or conditionally depleted of PS1, substrate proteolysis and autophagosome clearance during macroautophagy(More)
Altered degradation of alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). We have shown that alpha-syn can be degraded via chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), a selective lysosomal mechanism for degradation of cytosolic proteins. Pathogenic mutants of alpha-syn block lysosomal translocation, impairing their own(More)
Intracellular accumulation of altered and misfolded proteins is the basis of most neurodegenerative disorders. Altered proteins are usually organised in the form of toxic multimeric complexes that eventually promote neuronal death. Cells rely on surveillance mechanisms that take care of the removal of these toxic products. What then goes wrong in these(More)
A growing number of studies point to rapamycin as a pharmacological compound that is able to provide neuroprotection in several experimental models of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and spinocerebellar ataxia type 3. In addition, rapamycin exerts strong anti-ageing effects in several(More)
Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder pathologically characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra pars compacta and the presence, in affected brain regions, of protein inclusions named Lewy bodies (LBs). The ATP13A2 gene (locus PARK9) encodes the protein ATP13A2, a lysosomal type 5 P-type ATPase(More)
Rates of autophagy, the mechanism responsible for lysosomal clearance of cellular components, decrease with age. We have previously described an age-related decline in chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), a selective form of autophagy, by which particular cytosolic proteins are delivered to lysosomes after binding to the lysosome-associated membrane protein(More)
autophagy at a glance Susmita Kaushik1, Urmi Bandyopadhyay1,*, Sunandini Sridhar1, Roberta Kiffin1, Marta Martinez-Vicente1,‡, Maria Kon1, Samantha J. Orenstein1, Esther Wong1 and Ana Maria Cuervo1,§ 1Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology and Institute for Aging Studies, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA *Present address:(More)
The cellular surveillance systems guarantee proper removal of altered components from inside cells. Alterations of these systems in neurons have been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of different neurodegenerative disorders. In this review, we comment on the advances in our current understanding of how changes in the intracellular proteolytic(More)
Continuous turnover of intracellular proteins is essential for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and for the regulation of multiple cellular functions. The first reports showing a decrease in total rates of protein degradation with age are dated more than 50 years ago, when the major players in protein degradation where still to be discovered. The(More)
Mutations in ATP13A2 (PARK9) cause an autosomal recessive form of early-onset parkinsonism with pyramidal degeneration and dementia called Kufor-Rakeb Syndrome (KRS). The ATP13A2 gene encodes a transmembrane lysosomal P5-type ATPase (ATP13A2) whose physiological function in mammalian cells, and hence its potential role in Parkinson disease (PD), remains(More)