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Severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS-CoV) that lacks the envelope (E) gene (rSARS-CoV-ΔE) is attenuated in vivo. To identify factors that contribute to rSARS-CoV-ΔE attenuation, gene expression in cells infected by SARS-CoV with or without E gene was compared. Twenty-five stress response genes were preferentially upregulated during infection in the(More)
The engineering of a full-length infectious cDNA clone and a functional replicon of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) Urbani strain as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) is described in this study. In this system, the viral RNA was expressed in the cell nucleus under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter and further(More)
UNLABELLED Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging coronavirus infecting humans that is associated with acute pneumonia, occasional renal failure, and a high mortality rate and is considered a threat to public health. The construction of a full-length infectious cDNA clone of the MERS-CoV genome in a bacterial artificial(More)
Recombinant severe acute respiratory virus (SARS-CoV) variants lacking the group specific genes 6, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b and 9b (rSARS-CoV-Delta[6-9b]), the structural gene E (rSARS-CoV-DeltaE), and a combination of both sets of genes (rSARS-CoV-Delta[E,6-9b]) have been generated. All these viruses were rescued in monkey (Vero E6) cells and were also infectious(More)
A deletion mutant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has been engineered by deleting the structural E gene in an infectious cDNA clone that was constructed as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). The recombinant virus lacking the E gene (rSARS-CoV-DeltaE) was rescued in Vero E6 cells. The recovered deletion mutant grew in Vero(More)
An important effort has been performed after the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2003 to diagnose and prevent virus spreading. Several types of vaccines have been developed including inactivated viruses, subunit vaccines, virus-like particles (VLPs), DNA vaccines, heterologous expression systems, and vaccines derived from(More)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) envelope (E) protein is a transmembrane protein. Several subcellular locations and topological conformations of E protein have been proposed. To identify the correct ones, polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific for the amino or the carboxy terminus of E protein, respectively, were generated.(More)
The coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein is a viral RNA-binding protein with multiple functions in terms of virus replication and modulating cell signalling pathways. N protein is composed of three distinct regions containing RNA-binding motif(s), and appropriate signals for modulating cell signalling. The subcellular localization of severe acute(More)
To analyze the proteins interacting with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) envelope (E) protein, a SARS-CoV was engineered including two tags associated to the E protein. Using this virus, complexes of SARS-CoV E and other proteins were purified using a tandem affinity purification system. Several viral and cell proteins including(More)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is the etiological agent of a respiratory disease that has a 10% mortality rate. We previously showed that SARS-CoV lacking the E gene (SARS-CoV-ΔE) is attenuated in several animal model systems. Here, we show that absence of the E protein resulted in reduced expression of proinflammatory cytokines,(More)