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BACKGROUND Mobile (cell) phone communication has been suggested as a method to improve delivery of health services. However, data on the effects of mobile health technology on patient outcomes in resource-limited settings are limited. We aimed to assess whether mobile phone communication between health-care workers and patients starting antiretroviral(More)
CONTEXT Multidrug-resistant Salmonella serotype Typhi infections have been reported worldwide, but data on the incidence of resistant strains in the United States are lacking. OBJECTIVES To determine the incidence of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella Typhi infections and to identify risk factors for infection. DESIGN Cross-sectional laboratory-based(More)
The BED capture enzyme immunoassay (BED CEIA) for recent infection was developed for the estimation of HIV-1 incidence in a population from a single cross-sectional survey. To evaluate performance, we applied the assay to specimen sets obtained from a longitudinal cohort study, the AIDSVAX B/B vaccine trial, in which there was an independent and(More)
BACKGROUND Cyclospora cayetanensis is a parasite that causes gastroenteritis. Until last year most of the documented cases of cyclosporiasis in North America were in overseas travelers. In 1996, a large outbreak of cyclosporiasis occurred in North America. We investigated this outbreak. METHODS Health departments solicited information from clinicians and(More)
BACKGROUND The objectives are to compare the effectiveness of cell phone-supported SMS messaging to standard care on adherence, quality of life, retention, and mortality in a population receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS AND DESIGN A multi-site randomized controlled open-label trial. A central randomization centre provided(More)
In July 1995, 40 Montana residents were identified with laboratory-confirmed Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection; 52 residents had bloody diarrhea without laboratory confirmation. The median age of those with laboratory-confirmed cases was 42 years (range, 4- 86); 58% were female. Thirteen patients were hospitalized, and 1 developed hemolytic-uremic(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE HIV chemoprophylaxis may be a future prevention strategy to help control the global epidemic of HIV/AIDS. Safety and efficacy trials of two agents are currently underway. We assess the expected number of HIV cases prevented and cost-effectiveness of a hypothetical HIV chemoprophylaxis program among men who have sex with men in a(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate for changes in sexual behaviors associated with daily pill use among men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in a preexposure prophylaxis trial. DESIGN Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or placebo at enrollment or after a 9-month(More)
Bacterial diarrheal diseases cause substantial morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, but data on the epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of enteric bacterial pathogens are limited. Between May 1997 and April 1998, a clinic-based surveillance for diarrheal disease was conducted in Asembo, a rural area in western Kenya. In total,(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the clinical safety of daily tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) among HIV-negative men who have sex with men. DESIGN Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were randomized 1:1:1:1 to immediate or delayed study drug (TDF, 300 mg orally per day, or placebo). METHODS Four hundred healthy HIV-uninfected men(More)