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[1] Understanding the surface O 3 response over a ''receptor'' region to emission changes over a foreign ''source'' region is key to evaluating the potential gains from an international approach to abate ozone (O 3) pollution. We apply an ensemble of 21 global and hemispheric chemical transport models to estimate the spatial average surface O 3 response(More)
The Mediterranean Basin presents an extraordinary biological richness but very little information is available on the threat that air pollution, and in particular reactive nitrogen (N), can pose to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. This study represents the first approach to assess the risk of N enrichment effects on Spanish ecosystems. The(More)
Ozone exposure is associated with negative health impacts, including premature mortality. Observations and modeling studies demonstrate that emissions from one continent influence ozone air quality over other continents. We estimate the premature mortalities avoided from surface ozone decreases obtained via combined 20% reductions of anthropogenic nitrogen(More)
Anthropogenic N deposition poses a threat to European Mediterranean ecosystems. We combined data from an extant N deposition gradient (4.3-7.3 kg N ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹) from semiarid areas of Spain and a field experiment in central Spain to evaluate N deposition effects on soil fertility, function and cyanobacteria community. Soil organic N did not increase along the(More)
Nitrogen (N) deposition has doubled the natural N inputs received by ecosystems through biological N fixation and is currently a global problem that is affecting the Mediterranean regions. We evaluated the existing relationships between increased atmospheric N deposition and biogeochemical indicators related to soil chemical factors and cryptogam species(More)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions This discussion paper is/has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP if available. Abstract As part of the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (HTAP; www.htap.org) project, we analyze results from 16 global and hemispheric(More)
Ambient air levels of metals are included in the EC air quality standards due to their impact on human health and ecosystems. European directives 2008/50/CE and 2004/107/CE regulate lead, arsenic, cadmium, mercury and nickel ambient air levels. Air quality models constitute a powerful tool to understand tropospheric dynamics and to assign concentration(More)